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Do military members have to pay any fee for leave or fiancee forms?NOOOOOOO. You are talking to a military romance scammer. I received an email from the US Army that directly answers your question that is pasted below please keep reading.I believe you are the victim of a military Romance Scam whereas the person you are talking to is a foreign national posing as an American Soldier claiming to be stationed overseas on a peacekeeping mission. That's the key to the scam they always claim to be on a peacekeeping mission.Part of their scam is saying that they have no access to their money that their mission is highly dangerous.If your boyfriend girlfriend/future husband/wife is asking you to do the following or has exhibited this behavior, it is a most likely a scam:Moves to private messaging site immediately after meeting you on Facebook or SnapChat or Instagram or some dating or social media site. Often times they delete the site you met them on right after they asked you to move to a more private messaging siteProfesses love to you very quickly & seems to quote poems and song lyrics along with using their own sort of broken language, as they profess their love and devotion quickly. They also showed concern for your health and love for your family.Promises marriage as soon as he/she gets to state for leave that they asked you to pay for.They Requests money (wire transfers) and Amazon, iTune ,Verizon, etc gift cards, for medicine, religious practices, and leaves to come home, internet access, complete job assignments, help sick friend, get him out of trouble, or anything that sounds fishy.The military does provide all the soldier needs including food medical Care and transportation for leave. Trust me, I lived it, you are probably being scammed. I am just trying to show you examples that you are most likely being connned.Below is an email response I received after I sent an inquiry to the US government when I discovered I was scammed. I received this wonderful response back with lots of useful links on how to find and report your scammer. And how to learn more about Romance Scams.Right now you can also copy the picture he gave you and do a google image search and you will hopefully see the pictures of the real person he is impersonating. this doesn't always work and take some digging. if you find the real person you can direct message them and alert them that their image is being used for scamming.Good Luck to you and I'm sorry this may be happening to you. please continue reading the government response I received below it's very informative. You have contacted an email that is monitored by the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command. Unfortunately, this is a common concern. We assure you there is never any reason to send money to anyone claiming to be a Soldier online. If you have only spoken with this person online, it is likely they are not a U.S. Soldier at all. If this is a suspected imposter social media profile, we urge you to report it to that platform as soon as possible. Please continue reading for more resources and answers to other frequently asked questions: How to report an imposter Facebook profile: Caution-https://www.facebook.com/help/16... < Caution-https://www.facebook.com/help/16... > Answers to frequently asked questions: - Soldiers and their loved ones are not charged money so that the Soldier can go on leave. - Soldiers are not charged money for secure communications or leave. - Soldiers do not need permission to get married. - Soldiers emails are in this format: email@example.com < Caution-mailto: firstname.lastname@example.org > anything ending in .us or .com is not an official email account. - Soldiers have medical insurance, which pays for their medical costs when treated at civilian health care facilities worldwide – family and friends do not need to pay their medical expenses. - Military aircraft are not used to transport Privately Owned Vehicles. - Army financial offices are not used to help Soldiers buy or sell items of any kind. - Soldiers deployed to Combat Zones do not need to solicit money from the public to feed or house themselves or their troops. - Deployed Soldiers do not find large unclaimed sums of money and need your help to get that money out of the country. Anyone who tells you one of the above-listed conditions/circumstances is true is likely posing as a Soldier and trying to steal money from you. We would urge you to immediately cease all contact with this individual. For more information on avoiding online scams and to report this crime, please see the following sites and articles: This article may help clarify some of the tricks social media scammers try to use to take advantage of people: Caution-https://www.army.mil/article/61432/< Caution-https://www.army.mil/article/61432/> CID advises vigilance against 'romance scams,' scammers impersonating Soldiers Caution-https://www.army.mil/article/180749 < Caution-https://www.army.mil/article/180749 > FBI Internet Crime Complaint Center: Caution-http://www.ic3.gov/default.aspx< Caution-http://www.ic3.gov/default.aspx> U.S. Army investigators warn public against romance scams: Caution-https://www.army.mil/article/130...< Caution-https://www.army.mil/article/130...> DOD warns troops, families to be cybercrime smart -Caution-http://www.army.mil/article/1450...< Caution-http://www.army.mil/article/1450...> Use caution with social networking Caution-https://www.army.mil/article/146...< Caution-https://www.army.mil/article/146...> Please see our frequently asked questions section under scams and legal issues. Caution-http://www.army.mil/faq/ < Caution-http://www.army.mil/faq/ > or visit Caution-http://www.cid.army.mil/ < Caution-http://www.cid.army.mil/ >. The challenge with most scams is determining if an individual is a legitimate member of the US Army. Based on the Privacy Act of 1974, we cannot provide this information. If concerned about a scam you may contact the Better Business Bureau (if it involves a solicitation for money), or local law enforcement. If you're involved in a Facebook or dating site scam, you are free to contact us direct; (571) 305-4056. If you have a social security number, you can find information about Soldiers online at Caution-https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/appj/sc... < Caution-https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/appj/sc... > . While this is a free search, it does not help you locate a retiree, but it can tell you if the Soldier is active duty or not. If more information is needed such as current duty station or location, you can contact the Commander Soldier's Records Data Center (SRDC) by phone or mail and they will help you locate individuals on active duty only, not retirees. There is a fee of $3.50 for businesses to use this service. The check or money order must be made out to the U.S. Treasury. It is not refundable. The address is: Commander Soldier's Records Data Center (SRDC) 8899 East 56th Street Indianapolis, IN 46249-5301 Phone: 1-866-771-6357 In addition, it is not possible to remove social networking site profiles without legitimate proof of identity theft or a scam. If you suspect fraud on this site, take a screenshot of any advances for money or impersonations and report the account on the social networking platform immediately. Please submit all information you have on this incident to Caution-www.ic3.gov < Caution-http://www.ic3.gov > (FBI website, Internet Criminal Complaint Center), immediately stop contact with the scammer (you are potentially providing them more information which can be used to scam you), and learn how to protect yourself against these scams at Caution-http://www.ftc.gov < Caution-http://www.ftc.gov > (Federal Trade Commission's website)
How can I do a good EVS project?Ramnarain Ruia Jr. College, Matunga05/09/2015Environmental studies ProjectHospital Waste Management in Kurla Area:ü1.Selection of Topic (10 marks)ü2.Objectives(4 marks)ü3.Review of literature(4 marks)ü4.Relevance(4 marks)ü5.Proposed methodology(8 marks) 6..Description of the method followed(8 marks)ü7.Observation(2 marks)ü8.Analysis(4 marks)ü9.conclusion(2 marks)10.Report writing(4 marks) 11.viva-voice(10 marks)“Hospital (Medicinal) Waste”An Environmental Hazard and Its ManagementSelection of topic:The proper management of biomedical waste has become a worldwide humanitarian topic today. Although hazards of poor management of biomedical waste have aroused the concern world over, especially in the light of its far-signNowing effects on human, health and the environment.2Now it is a well-established fact that there are many adverse and harmful effects to the environment including human beings which are caused by the “Hospital waste” generated during the patient care. Hospital waste is a potential health hazard to the health care workers, public and flora and fauna of the area. The problems of the waste disposal in the hospitals and other health-care institutions have become issues of increasing concern.Hospital is a place of almighty, a place to serve the patient. Since beginning, the hospitals are known for the treatment of sick persons but we are unaware about the adverse effects of the garbage and filth generated by them on human body and environment. Now it is a well-established fact that there are many adverse and harmful effects to the environment including human beings which are caused by the "Hospital waste" generated during the patient care. Hospital waste is a potential health hazard to the health care workers, public and flora and fauna of the area. Hospital acquired infection, transfusion transmitted diseases, rising incidence of Hepatitis B, and HIV, increasing land and water pollution lead to increasing possibility of catching many diseases. Air pollution due to emission of hazardous gases by incinerator such as Furan, Dioxin, Hydrochloric acid etc. have compelled the authorities to think seriously about hospital waste and the diseases transmitted through improper disposal of hospital waste. This problem has now become a serious threat for the public health and, ultimately, the Central Government along with state government had to intervene for enforcing proper handling and disposal of hospital waste and an act was passed in July 1996 and a bio-medical waste (handling and management) rule was introduced in 1998.A modern hospital is a complex, multidisciplinary system which consumes thousands of items for delivery of medical care and is a part of physical environment. All these products consumed in the hospital leave some unusable leftovers i.e. hospital waste. The last century witnessed the rapid mushrooming of hospital in the public and private sector, dictated by the needs of expanding population. The advent and acceptance of "disposable" has made the generation of hospital waste a signNow factor in current scenario.As I live in Kurla I am very much familiar with the present day conditions regarding the above topic. The area is much crowdy as compared to other areas of the city. It is the main site where one can find slum areas, so the chances of effects due to improper hospital waste management are more in this area. Also the people are not aware of the fact that there is something called hospital waste management. Most of the people categorize all the waste under same column and that’s the worst part of it.Therefore in order to catch people’s attention towards this problem I choose this topic under environmental studies.I am sure that it may contribute a little fraction in creating awareness among the citizens.Objectives:Need of biomedical waste management in hospitals:While selecting this topic, the question aroused in my mind was “why do we need to separate this waste from household waste?” I gone through various articles and the reports served by municipality officials and came to know that how dangerous it would be if we are not separating this waste. Still separating wasn’t enough. It has to be decomposed or manage properly in order make it safeHospital waste management is a part of hospital hygiene and maintenance activities. In fact only 15% of hospital waste i.e. "Biomedical waste" is hazardous, not the complete. But when hazardous waste is not segregated at the source of generation and mixed with nonhazardous waste, then 100% waste becomes hazardous. The question then arises that what is the need or rationale for spending so many resources in terms of money, man power, material and machine for management of hospital waste?The reasons due to which there is great need of management of hospital waste such as:1.Injuries from sharps leading to infection to all categories of hospital personnel and waste handler.2.Nosocomial infections in patients from poor infection control practices and poor waste management.3.Risk of infection outside hospital for waste handlers and scavengers and at time general public living in the vicinity of hospitals.4.Risk associated with hazardous chemicals, drugs to persons handling wastes at all levels.5.“Disposable” being repacked and sold by unscrupulous elements without even being washed.6.Drugs which have been disposed of, being repacked and sold off to unsuspecting buyers.7.Risk of air, water and soil pollution directly due to waste, or due to defective incineration emissions and ash3.To make people aware of the fact, what is hospital waste?Hospital waste refers to all waste generated, discarded and not intended for further use in the hospital.According to Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 of India “Any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biological.Review of literature:As this topic is very much familiar with metro cities like Mumbai I got a lot of information regarding above topic from following sources:ØRecent reports given by local municipality and state government officials.ØGuidelines given by WHO regarding hospital waste management and their disposal.ØInterviews of respected hospital officials (waste managers).ØEfforts carried out by various NGO’s in respective areas.ØAt the State level, many States are developing new standards to control medical waste disposal.ØBecause of the information need to support the implementation of the regulations, both the Federal Government and the States have conducted various studies. This signNow represents a discussion of what has been learned as a result of these studies.ØEvaluation of medical waste treatment technologies conducted by private industries;ØCase study: hospital waste management (Kurla area)Relevance:Scientific Relevance:·In order to understand how this topic is related scientifically following points must be understood. The following information provides how this waste is classified:-(1) General waste: Largely composed of domestic or house hold type waste. It is non-hazardous to human beings, e.g. kitchen waste, packaging material, signNow, wrappers, plastics.(2) Pathological waste: Consists of tissue, organ, body part, human foetuses, blood and body fluid. It is hazardous waste.(3) Infectious waste: The wastes which contain pathogens in sufficient concentration or quantity that could cause diseases. It is hazardous e.g. culture and stocks of infectious agents from laboratories, waste from surgery, waste originating from infectious patients.(4) Sharps: Waste materials which could cause the person handling it, a cut or puncture of skin e.g. needles, broken glass, saws, nail, blades, and scalpels.(5) Pharmaceutical waste: This includes pharmaceutical products, drugs, and chemicals that have been returned from wards, have been spilled, are outdated, or contaminated.(6) Chemical waste: This comprises discarded solid, liquid and gaseous chemicals e.g. cleaning, house keeping, and disinfecting product.(7) Radioactive waste: It includes solid, liquid, and gaseous waste that is contaminated with radionucleides generated from in-vitro analysis of body tissues and fluid, in-vivo body organ imaging and tumour localization and therapeutic procedures.·How this waste is disposed?Based on Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998, notified under the Environment Protection Act by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (Government of India).1. Segregation of wasteSegregation is the essence of waste management and should be done at the source of generation of Bio-medical waste e.g. all patient care activity areas, diagnostic services areas, operation theaters, labour rooms, treatment rooms etc. The responsibility of segregation should be with the generator of biomedical waste i.e. doctors, nurses, technicians etc. (medical and paramedical personnel). The biomedical waste should be segregated as per categories mentioned in the rules.2. Collection of bio-medical wasteCollection of bio-medical waste should be done as per Bio-medical waste (Management and Handling) Rules. At ordinary room temperature the collected waste should not be stored for more than 24 hours.Types of container and colour code for collection of bio-medical waste.CategoryWaste classType of containerColour1.Human anatomical wastePlasticYellow2.Animal waste-do--do-3.Microbiology and Biotechnology waste-do-Yellow/Red4.Waste sharpPlastic bag puncture proof containersBlue/White Translucent5.Discarded medicines and Cytotoxic wastePlastic bagsBlack6.Solid (biomedical waste)-do-Yellow7.Solid (plastic)Plastic bag puncture proof containersBlue/White Translucent8.Incineration wastePlastic bagBlack9.Chemical waste (solid)-do--do-3. TransportationWithin hospital, waste routes must be designated to avoid the passage of waste through patient care areas. Separate time should be earmarked for transportation of bio-medical waste to reduce chances of it's mixing with general waste. Desiccated wheeled containers, trolleys or carts should be used to transport the waste/plastic bags to the site of storage/ treatment.Trolleys or carts should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected in the event of any spillage. The wheeled containers should be so designed that the waste can be easily loaded, remains secured during transportation, does not have any sharp edges and is easy to clean and disinfect. Hazardous biomedical waste needing transport to a long distance should be kept in containers and should have proper labels. The transport is done through desiccated vehicles specially constructed for the purpose having fully enclosed body, lined internally with stainless steel or aluminium to provide smooth and impervious surface which can be cleaned. The drivers compartment should be separated from the load compartment with a bulkhead. The load compartment should be provided with roof vents for ventilation.4. Treatment of hospital wasteTreatment of waste is required:· to disinfect the waste so that it is no longer the source of infection.· to reduce the volume of the waste.· make waste unrecognizable for aesthetic reasons.· make recycled items unusable.4.1 General wasteThe 85% of the waste generated in the hospital belongs to this category. The, safe disposal of this waste is the responsibility of the local authority.4.2 bio-medical waste: 15% of hospital waste· Deep burial: The waste under category 1 and 2 only can be accorded deep burial and only in cities having less than 5 lakh population.· Autoclave and microwave treatment Standards for the autoclaving and microwaving are also mentioned in the Biomedical waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998. All equipment installed/shared should meet these specifications. The waste under category 3,4,6,7 can be treated by these techniques. Standards for the autoclaving are also laid down.· Shredding: The plastic (IV bottles, IV sets, syringes, catheters etc.), sharps (needles, blades, glass etc) should be shredded but only after chemical treatment/microwaving/autoclaving. Needle destroyers can be used for disposal of needles directly without chemical treatment.· Secured landfill:: The incinerator ash, discarded medicines, cytotoxic substances and solid chemical waste should be treated by this option.· Incineration: The incinerator should be installed and made operational as per specification under the BMW rules 1998 and a certificate may be taken from CPCB/State Pollution Control Board and emission levels etc should be defined. In case of small hospitals, facilities can be shared. The waste under category 1,2,3,5,6 can be incinerated depending upon the local policies of the hospital and feasibility. The polythene bags made of chlorinated plastics should not be incinerated.· It may be noted that there are options available for disposal of certain category of waste. The individual hospital can choose the best option depending upon the facilities available and its financial resources. However, it may be noted that depending upon the option chosen, correct colour of the bag needs to be used.5. Safety measures5.1 All the generators of bio--medical waste should adopt universal precautions and appropriate safety measures while doing therapeutic and diagnostic activities and also while handling the bio-medical waste.5.2 It should be ensured that:· drivers, collectors and other handlers are aware of the nature and risk of the waste.· written instructions, provided regarding the procedures to be adopted in the event of spillage/ accidents.· protective gears provided and instructions regarding their use are given.· workers are protected by vaccination against tetanus and hepatitis B.6. Training· each and every hospital must have well planned awareness and training programme for all category of personnel including administrators (medical, paramedical and administrative).· all the medical professionals must be made aware of Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998.· to institute awards for safe hospital waste management and universal precaution practices.· training should be conducted to all categories of staff in appropriate language/medium and in an acceptable manner.7. Management and administrationHeads of each hospital will have to take authorization for generation of waste from appropriate authorities as notified by the concerned State/U.T. Government, well in time and to get it renewed as per time schedule laid down in the rules. Each hospital should constitute a hospital waste management committee, chaired by the head of the Institute and having wide representation from all major departments. This committee should be responsible for making Hospital specific action plan for hospital waste management and its supervision, monitoring and implementation. The annual reports, accident reports, as required under BMW rules should be submitted to the concerned authorities as per BMW rules format.8. Measures for waste minimizationAs far as possible, purchase of reusable items made of glass and metal should be encouraged. Select non PVC plastic items. Adopt procedures and policies for proper management of waste generated, the mainstay of which is segregation to reduce the quantity of waste to be treated. Establish effective and sound recycling policy for plastic recycling and get in touch with authorised manufactures.Social relevance:This project completely focuses on why do we need to separate this waste and why do we need to dispose them effectively.§It has a great impact on health of local citizens. So it is completely socially relevant.§A major issue related to current Bio-Medical waste management in many hospitals is that the implementation of Bio-Waste regulation is unsatisfactory as some hospitals are disposing of waste in a haphazard, improper and indiscriminate manner. Lack of segregation practices, results in mixing of hospital wastes with general waste making the whole waste stream hazardous. Inappropriate segregation ultimately results in an incorrect method of waste disposal.§Inadequate Bio-Medical waste management thus will cause environmental pollution, unpleasant smell, growth and multiplication of vectors like insects, rodents and worms and may lead to the transmission of diseases like typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and AIDS through injuries from syringes and needles contaminated with human.6§Various communicable diseases, which spread through water, sweat, blood, body fluids and contaminated organs, are important to be prevented. The Bio Medical Waste scattered in and around the hospitals invites flies, insects, rodents, cats and dogs that are responsible for the spread of communication disease like plague and rabies. Rag pickers in the hospital, sorting out the garbage are at a risk of getting tetanus and HIV infections. The recycling of disposable syringes, needles, IV sets and other article like glass bottles without proper sterilization are responsible for Hepatitis, HIV, and other viral diseases. It becomes primary responsibility of Health administrators to manage hospital waste in most safe and eco-friendly manner6.The problem of bio-medical waste disposal in the hospitals and other healthcare establishments has become an issue of increasing concern, prompting hospital administration to seek new ways of scientific, safe and cost effective management of the waste.· Municipal authority : As quite a large percentage of waste (in India upto 85%), generated in Indian hospitals, belong to general category (non-toxic and non-hazardous), hospital should have constant interaction with municipal authorities so that this category of waste is regularly taken out of the hospital premises for land fill or other treatment.· Co-ordination with Pollution Control Boards: Search for better methods technology, provision of facilities for testing, approval of certain models for hospital use in conformity with standards 'aid down.· Development of non-PVC plastics as a substitute for plastic which is used in the manufacture of disposable items• Establishment of training programs for workers to improve the quality and quantity of work.• Protection of workers against occupational risks.·Economic Relevance:Medical waste requires more amount of money as compared to household waste or any other waste as it has to be decomposed very efficiently and carefully. Regardless of how much money is being spent we need to check for whether the money spent is being used properly or not for that we need to search for cost effective and environmental friendly technology for treatment of bio-medical and hazardous waste. Also, to search for suitable materials to be used as containers for bio-medical waste requiring incineration/autoclaving/ microwaving. This project mainly focuses on reducing expenditure regarding waste management.Cost reductions can be achieved by taking particular measures at different stages in the management of wastes: On-site management• Comprehensive management of chemicals and pharmaceuticals stores.• Substitution of disposable medical care items by recyclable items.• Adequate segregation of waste to avoid costly or inadequate treatment of waste that does not require it.• Improved waste identification to simplify segregation, treatment, and recycling. Comprehensive planning• Planning collection and transport in such a way that all operations are safe and cost-efficient. • Possible cooperative use of regional incineration facilities, including private sector facilities where appropriate.• Selection of a treatment and disposal option that is appropriate for waste type and local circumstances.• Use of treatment equipment of appropriate type and capacity. Measures at personnel levelPROPOSED METHODOLOGY:In order to collect all the information and to have a descriptive look on the topic stated above, the best way was to take interviews of the respective people in the field of waste management. As most of the people in this area are not that much familiar with the things like how waste in managed and how all things take place, there was no use of taking interviews of local people. So most important task in front of me was to collect all information and put this in front of local citizens so that they would understand what this thing is.Interviewee:Hospital waste managers.Workers or handlers.Transporters.BMC officials in respective areas.Local people facing problems regarding the same.Medical students in the area stated above.Active NGO’s in above area.Citizens in damping areas.Requirements:As I have to conduct interviews I have to be prepared with all the questions.A camera is must for recording all statements given by respective people.List of prestigious hospitals in the area.List of hospital waste managers in respective hospitals.Sufficient information regarding the questions which I need to ask.Permission of hospital authorities to conduct interviews.A guide.How to proceed?As stated earlier, my motto was to conduct interviews of officials and put them in front of local citizens:Questions to officials:1.What are Biomedical wastes?2.What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes?Questions to workers:3.What is the quantum of waste that is generated by a hospital?4.What are disinfection and sterilization?5.What are the colour codes and type of containers used for disposal of biomedical waste?6.What materials can be recycled?7.How long can bio medical waste be stored?Questions to BMC officials:8.What are the hazards associated with poor health care waste management?9.Who are the persons at risk of the hazards of medical procedures?10.What are the rules and regulations governing the disposal of these wastes?Questions to medical students:11.What are the responsibilities of health care institutions regarding biomedical waste management?Questions to NGO’s:12.What are the different hospital waste categories?13.What is Biosafety?14.What are the disinfectants commonly used for disinfection of materials contaminated with blood and body fluids?15.How is disinfection of the various items commonly used in the hospital carried out?Thus, this is how I need to proceed in order to complete my project work. Along with that I may require methods like mouth publicity, pamphlets regarding the same. And most important in order to complete it effectively I need to be guided by my EVS teacher.DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD FOLLOWED:Answers to the questions asked:1.Biomedical wastes are defined as waste that is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals, or in research activities pertaining thereto, or in the production of biological.2.Biodegradable waste means any waste that is capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition, such as food and garden waste, and signNow and signNowboard. It also includes waste from households, which because of its nature and composition is similar to biodegradable waste from households. Non-biodegradable wastes are the wastes that cannot be decomposed by bacteria eg.plastics, bottles and tins.3.The quantum of waste that is generated in India is estimated to be 1-2 kg per bed per day in a hospital and 600 gm per day per bed in a general practioner’s clinic. e.g. a 100 bedded hospital will generate 100 – 200 kgs of hospital waste/day. It is estimated that only 5 – 10% of this comprises of hazardous/infectious waste (5 – 10kgs/day)4.Proper disposal of biomedical waste is of paramount importance because of its infectious and hazardous characteristics. Improper disposal can result in the following: · Organic portion ferments and attracts fly breeding · Injuries from sharps to all categories of health care personnel and waste handlers · Increase risk of infections to medical, nursing and other hospital staff · Injuries from sharps to health workers and waste handlers · Poor infection control can lead to nosocomial infections in patients particularly HIV, Hepatitis B & C · Increase in risk associated with hazardous chemicals and drugs being handled by persons handling wastes · Poor waste management encourages unscrupulous persons to recycle disposables and disposed drugs for repacking and reselling · Development of resistant strains of microorganisms5.ProcedurePerson at riskMode of TransmissionCollection of blood samplesPatient Health workerContaminated needle, gloves, Skin puncture by needle or container,Contamination of hands by bloodTransfer of specimens (within laboratory)Laboratory personnelContamination of exterior of specimen container, Broken container,Splash of specimenHIV serology and virologyLaboratory personnelSkin puncture, splash of specimen,6.The Government of India has promulgated the Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998. They are applicable to all persons who generate, collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose or handle biomedical wastes. This includes hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, dispensaries, veterinary institutions, animal houses, pathological laboratories and blood banks.7.It is mandatory for such institutions to:Set up biomedical waste treatment facilities like incinerators, autoclave and microwave systems for treatment of the wastesMake an application to the concerned authorities for grant of authorizationSubmit a report regarding information about the categories and quantities of biomedical wastes handled during the preceding year by 31 Jan every yearMaintain records about the generation, collection, reception, storage, transportation, treatment, disposal and/or any form of handling bio medical wasteReport immediately any accident to the prescribed authority8.Biosafety is essentially a preventive concept and consists of wide variety of safety precautions that are to be undertaken, either singly or in combination, depending on the type of hazard by all medical, nursing and paramedical workers as well as by patients, attendants, ancillary staff and administrators in a hospital.9.Disinfection and sterilization are important procedures in biosafety. Disinfection refers to procedures which reduce the number of microorganisms on an object or surface but not the complete destruction of all microorganism or spores. Sterilisation on the other hand, refers to procedures, which would remove all microorganisms, including spores, from an object. Sterilisation is undertaken either by dry heat (for 2 hours at 1700C in an electric oven – method of choice for glass ware and sharps) or by various forms of moist heat (i.e. boiling in water for an effective contact time of 20 min or steam sterilization in an autoclave at 15 lb/sq inch at 1210C for 20 min)Name of DisinfectantAvailable chlorineRequired chlorineRequired chlorine Contact periodAmount of disinfectant to be dissolved in 1 ltr of waterSodium hypochlorite5%0.5%30 min100 mlCalcium hypochlorite70%0.5%30 min7.0 gmNa OCl powder-0.5%30 min8.5 gm10.OBSERVATION:Amount and composition of hospital waste generated(a) AmountAreaQuantity (kg/bed/day)SionDadarAndheriKurla184.108.40.206.0b) (Hazardous/non-hazardous)Hazardous15%a) Hazardous but non-infective5%b) Hazardous and infective10%Non-hazardous85%c) Composition(By weight):Plastic14%CombustibleDry cellublostic solid45%Wet cellublostic solid18%Non-combustible20%ANALYSIS:Following observations were made during my visit to respective clinics and hospitals in Kurla area.Major Sources§Govt. hospitals/private hospitals/nursing homes/ dispensaries.§Primary health centers.§Medical colleges and research centers/ paramedic services.§Veterinary colleges and animal research centers.§Blood banks/mortuaries/autopsy centers.§Biotechnology institutions.§Production units.Minor Sources§Physicians/ dentists’ clinics§Animal houses/slaughter houses.§Problems relating to biomedical waste§advances in this area. The need of proper hospital waste management system is of prime importance and is an essential component of quality assurance in hospitals§Blood donation camps.§Vaccination centers.§Acupuncturists/psychiatric clinics/cosmetic piercing.§Funeral services.§Institutions for disabled personsCONCLUSION:Medical wastes should be classified according to their source, typology and risk factors associated with their handling, storage and ultimate disposal. The segregation of waste at source is the key step and reduction, reuse and recycling should be considered in proper perspectives. We need to consider innovative and radical measures to clean up the distressing picture of lack of civic concern on the part of hospitals and slackness in government implementation of bare minimum of rules, as waste generation particularly biomedical waste imposes increasing direct and indirect costs on society. The challenge before us, therefore, is to scientifically manage growing quantities of biomedical waste that go beyond past practices. If we want to protect our environment and health of community we must sensitize our selves to this important issue not only in the interest of health managers but also in the interest of community.
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People also ask
Are gloves biomedical waste?Cleaning equipment/reusable gloves are to be cleaned/discarded appropriately. Hands must be washed at the end of the procedure. Anatomical Waste \u2013 placentas, human tissues, organs and body parts; does not include teeth, hair and nails. ... Includes waste from offices, kitchens, washrooms, public areas.
What is considered biomedical waste?Biomedical Waste means any solid waste which contains pathological waste, biological waste, cultures, and stocks of infectious agents and associated biologicals, contaminated animal carcasses (body parts, their bedding, and other wastes from such animals), chemotherapy waste, discarded medical equipment and parts, not ...
How long can biomedical waste be stored?(b) Storage of biomedical waste in a place other than at the generating facility shall not exceed 30 days. The 30 day storage period shall begin on the day the waste is collected from the generator.
What is Biomedical Waste?Biomedical waste is any kind of waste containing infectious (or potentially infectious) materials. ... Biomedical waste is generated from biological and medical sources and activities, such as the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of diseases.
Which of the following is considered biomedical waste?Biohazardous waste, also called infectious waste or biomedical waste, is any waste containing infectious materials or potentially infectious substances such as blood. Of special concern are sharp wastes such as needles, blades, glass pipettes, and other wastes that can cause injury during handling.