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A team of 3 students is to be formed out of 6 students. In how many ways can the teams be formed?Let’s say there’s Jools, Jops, Stoo, Rj, Ziggy and Cheese. If we start forming a first group we have six students to choose from. The second person of that group could then be filled by any of the 5 remaining students. Which leaves us with 4 individuals eligable for the third position. The number of possible combinations of this group would thus be 6*5*4 = 120.Since the question does not state an outline of specific positions or roles in the group(s) formed, a group consisting of Jops, Ziggy and Cheese should be considered equal to the combination Cheese, Jops and Ziggy. The internal ordering of the group(s) should therefore not matter for the answer to this question. Whether we are forming one or two groups is therefore not really relevant: since all six students have been considered in the forming of the first group and count towards the number of possible combinations.In short, forming a group of three out of six people can be done in 120 ways, all of which leaving an arbitrary remainder of three students.
A committee of five members is to be formed out of 5 IT officers, 4 clerks and 2 peons, In how many different ways can it be done if the committee should consists of 3 IT officers, 1 clerk & 1 peon?5p3 ×4p1 × 2p1
As an international student in Canada, what is the most popular research area (as an easiest one to find jobs) for ECE engineers?Canada is the largest country in North America and consists of 10 provinces and 3 territories. It is located in the northern part of the continent, and the capital of Canada is Ottawa. It is the second largest country in the world territory-wise. It is a popular destination for vocational and diploma courses.Education SystemThe school systems in Canada are different from each other, depending on the province or territory. Education is available in both English and in French in most places, provided there are enough students in that area speaking the secondary language. High school is typically till grades nine to 12. In Québec, high school ends in grade eleven and is followed by a program that prepares the student for university or a technical field called CEGEP.Beyond this, students can attend either vocational schools or enter a university. At a university they will first earn a Bachelor's degree, and can continue studies to receive a Master's or a Doctorate degree. Vocational students will earn certificates and diplomas that will help improve their skills in the various trades.Popular student destinations:Universities like McGill University, The University of British Columbia, University of Alberta and Simon Fraser University are popular choices if you want to pursue a full time academic degree. Most of the best colleges in the country are situated in cities like Toronto, British Columbia, Montreal. The number of Canadian student visas issued to Indian students jumped to more than 12,000 in 2010, from 3,152 in 2008.Canada is the preferred destination for vocational studies rather than degree courses as the former seem to provide more employment opportunities. Canada is a good choice for immigration as the country offers immense scope for work owing to its low population density.The most popular higher study courses in Canada would be postgraduate diplomas in areas like Business Management, Media, Engineering, Computer Science and Hospitality.Safety in Canada:Canada is one of the safest countries, with one of the highest standards of living in the world. Canada is a free country where people are, by and large, judged on their actions and character, rather than their appearance or country of origin.WeatherWeather in Canada varies widely depending on where you are. Canada stretches from the Pacific to Atlantic Ocean, covering five time zones.Montreal Weather - The weather here in winter is cold and snowy. The cold in Montreal can be especially biting because of the wind-chill factor. Snowfall usually begins in November and continues through March. During winter months, the daytime temperatures are between -6°C to -15°C. Summer temperatures range from 15°C to 25°C.Toronto Weather - The weather here in winter is milder than most Canadian cities, yet still cold and snowy. Summer temperatures range from 15°C to 25°C. During winter months, the daytime temperatures are between -10°C to 12°C.Vancouver Weather - It remains wet, yet mild throughout the year. Summer in Vancouver is pleasantly warm with an average temperature of 22°C. Winters are wet, but snow is rare. Average daily temperatures in winters range from 3°C to 7°C.Lifestyle tipsCanadians are known to be open-minded and proud of their multicultural and diverse population. Like any other country, Canadians have certain expectations of behaviour. Here are a few tips:Be on time for both professional and social occasionsBe respectful in conversation and behaviorCanadians believe in equality between genders, so show respect to the opposite sexDon't crack jokes or make comments that are insulting to people's race, religion, gender, disability, sexual orientation or appearanceAvoid personal questions about things like age, salary, marital status, relationships, and the cost of personal items until you are well-acquainted with peopleLanguage problems: Living in a society where you have to use English or occasionally French on a daily basis can be challenging at first. Some language problems you may initially encounter when you arrive are:You may not understand the local accent right away. Regional accents vary greatly in Canada. Give yourself time to get used to the local accent.Canadians might not understand you right away. You will also have your own accent. Speak slowly and don't be shy about asking others to speak slowly if you are having a hard time understanding them.Canadians use a lot of slang in their speech and it might take you some time before you understand all of it.Humour is an integral part of Canadian English. This should be interpreted as a sign of friendliness, not disrespect.Canadians use lots of abbreviation in their speech (for example, TA for Teachers Assistant or Poli Sci for Political Science). If you don't understand something, simply ask the meaning of it.Participation: It is necessary to participate in all activities during your classes. You may be asked to participate in class discussions, group work or other activities. It is very important to participate outside of the classroom as well. This will provide you with many opportunities to practice your English skills in many different settings.Making friends: Try not to be shy. Remember that making friends is important to everyone in their first year of university. Saying "please" and "thank you" are important Canadian customs, and your relationships will improve if you express your gratitude and appreciation to those around you.Indians living in CanadaMost Indians choose to live at larger urban centres like Toronto, and Vancouver, where more than 70% of Indians live. Smaller communities are also growing in Calgary, Edmonton, and Montreal. Indians in Vancouver are from different parts of India. A place called Little India exists in Vancouver and a section of Gerrard Street (Toronto) in Toronto as well. Indians in Vancouver mainly live in the suburb of Surrey, or nearby Abbotsford and also in other parts of Vancouver.Student lifeAccommodationFirstly, you need to decide whether you want to live in university managed accommodation, or with a private landlord. Choosing university managed accommodation can also give you a catered or self-catered option. Catered accommodation offers the benefits of your meals being cooked for you and a degree of certainty with meal costs.If you have an idea about what you prefer, the accommodation office at your university will be able to tell you what accommodation they have available - so that’s the place to start. If you are thinking of renting from a private landlord or if your chosen university can’t offer you anything in its own residential facility, the accommodation office should be able to provide you with a list of private properties and landlords in the area.Wherever you choose to live, you should make sure that you know your contractual rights and responsibilities. In most cases you will be asked to enter into a tenancy agreement, which you should read thoroughly before you sign it.OrientationOrientation week is mandatory for international students so you want to be sure and arrive before it starts. This is the time where you will be introduced to the university and its services, as well as enroll in your classes. It is essential that you read your guidebook, which is provided by the college. The guide explains each part of the admission process.ActivitiesAlong with sports, colleges offer extra-curricular activities that provide students a wide range of experiences. Music, drama, science and literary societies in colleges offer opportunities for outdoor education and other leisure activities. Visits to theatres and concerts, and to places relevant to the courses of study such as art galleries and museums, religious centres or historical sites, scientific companies and projects are all part of college life.Admission processRequirementsThese vary between study programs and levels. For each course, Indian students will need to meet a minimum English language requirement. Along with that a minimum academic record of 65% and above for humanities stream in class XII, and 70 - 80% and above for Science/Commerce stream in class XII will also be required. Foundations and Diploma programs are available for students who have secured below 60%. The student should have completed 18 years of age before joining a degree program.It is important to note that these numbers are just for reference purpose, the actual numbers may differ from university to university.DocumentsThe following documents also need to be submitted -Attested copies of mark sheets of Standard X, XII, and the Bachelor's degree (if applicable)At least, two academic reference letters from professors who have taught you most recentlyIf you have work experience then two letters of recommendation from the employer/manager who knows you well and can comment on your professional abilitiesStatement of Purpose (SOP)ResumePhotocopied score reports of GMAT / IELTS / TOEFLPortfolio (in case of Students applying for art and design courses & architecture programs)Others (certificates/achievements at the state and national level and extracurricular activities)Proof of fundsMedical TestsCheck which Documents are required for Diploma Courses in CanadaTimelineMost Canadian colleges accept online applications. You will have to visit each college's website to apply. In most cases, you will have to make an account on the college website to provide your basic information, submit the scanned version of your documents, and pay application fees. You will be informed about the application process and stages through this account.Please refer to the website of the colleges of your choice to know the process of applying as it may differ from institute to institute.Application fee: All colleges require that you pay an application fee while applying. The fee amount will differ depending upon the college and course being applied to, so check with individual colleges about their application fee.Steps: The common steps to applying for admission are as follow -Search for colleges and coursesContact schools and visit websites for informationNarrow down your list of schoolsTake the entrance exams like SAT, GMAT, GRE, TOEFL, IELTSWrite SOPs and ask for LORsApply to the colleges which fit your interestsAppear for video interviews of the colleges that shortlisted youIf accepted, apply for student visaRead detailed Study in Canada TimelineSOP: A Statement of Purpose (SOP) is your introduction to the college and admission officers. It is always written in the first person and describes the reason for applying to a particular college. It needs to highlight why you are a perfect fit for the college and why the college should accept you. The style of writing could differ from formal to casual, but it is important to remember that it should reflect your personality as well.Essay: Essays are also required to be submitted by a prospective student. Essays are an important part of the university admissions process. Students may be required to write one or two essays, along with a few optional essays too. Common topics include career aspirations, strengths and weaknesses, skills, experiences, and reasons for considering a particular school.LOR: A letter of recommendation (LOR) is a reference letter written by a third party describing the qualities, characteristics, and capabilities of the prospective student to recommend him to the college in terms of that individual’s ability to perform a particular task or function. The third party could be a professor, direct manager etc.Intake seasonsThe session starts mainly in September and January but some institutions have intakes in May, July, and October as well. The Major intake season for the top courses in Canada is September, while the minor intake season is January, which is meant for a fairly small number of courses.You should start your admission process around six months before the application deadline. Typically most universities have three deadlines, from October to January. It is up to the convenience of the students, which deadline to aim for. You should be done with your language and aptitude tests by three months before the deadline. The last three months should be dedicated to filling out the application form properly.It is essential to ensure that the ‘complete application process’ along with appearing for interviews and visa application procedure should be complete by June or July for the September intake.The main intake season for top colleges and courses is the fall season i.e. September. It depends on what course you are looking to pursue because many courses don’t have the January intakes.If you are looking to get admission into vocational courses, then some courses may have admissions open in January and perhaps even May or July.Further ReadingWhich Intake Season to Choose: Fall or Spring?ExamsLanguage examsThe International English Language Testing System (IELTS), Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and Pearson Test of English (PTE) are all standardized language tests, which are required to be taken for the purpose of getting admission into colleges. These follow different formats, structure and result bands. These tests are all different in various ways but many colleges ask for any one of the results. So it's up to the student to decide which exam to appear for.Repetition of exams: IELTS can be taken for unlimited number of times. TOEFL can be retaken as many times as desired, but cannot be taken more than once in a 12-day period. Same holds true for PTE; it can be taken as many times as one wishes to. You must wait to receive your scores before you can book your next test.Fee: The fee for these exams is Rs 9,300 for IELTS, Rs 10,000 for TOEFL and Rs 9,350 for PTE.Time to apply: Ideally, if you are aiming at the September intake you should appear for these exams by November so that you can apply before the 1st deadline. The universities you will be applying to will mention which exam results they will accept. But if they give a choice to go for either of these, then the choice depends on you. The time required to prepare for IELTS/TOEFL/PTE would depend on the existing English language proficiency. You may require 2 to 4 months of preparation before the exam date.General examsGMAT - The Graduate Management Aptitude Test is used to measure the abilities of the potential MBA aspirant to undertake higher education in the field of business or management. It measures mathematical, English, and reasoning skills of the student.GRE - The Graduate Record Examination is another test required to be taken by students applying to graduate schools to pursue MA or MS. Increasingly, many business schools are also accepting GRE scores for the purpose to granting admission for MBA.LSAT - The Law School Admission Test is a standardized test and is an integral part of the law school admission process. It provides a measure of reading and verbal reasoning skills that law schools can use in assessing applicants.SAT - The Scholastic Assessment Test measures literacy and writing skills that are needed for academic success in college. This test assesses how well the test takers analyze and solve problems — skills they learned in school that they will need in college. SAT is typically taken by high school students to get into undergraduate courses.Exams required to pursue vocational courses in CanadaThe university you will be applying to will mention which exam results will be applicable for the course of your choice. But if they give a choice to go for either of these, then the choice depends on you.Repetition and Fee: You can give GMAT unlimited number of times, subject to five times a year and a gap of 30 days between two tests. You can take these tests with a gap of 30 days from the first time. The cost of GMAT is Rs 16,000, GRE is Rs 12,000 and LSAT is Rs 3,800.Ideally, if you are aiming at the September intake you should appear for these exams by November so that you can apply before the 1st deadline. The preparatory duration generally ranges from 4 to 6 months.Average Scores: The average GMAT score accepted across universities is 540. Average GRE score is 151 for Verbal, 146 for Quantitative and 3.5 for Writing. Average LSAT score accepted across universities is 162.It is important to note that these numbers are just for reference purpose, the actual scores may differ from university to university.Cost of livingThe cost of living depends heavily on what part of Canada will you be living in along with how much you will socialize. Some of the basic elements for living as an international student in Canada are:Accommodation rent ( on campus or off campus )Groceries and foodUtilities like electricity, water, gas, internetPhone billsText and reference booksAirfare for traveling back to IndiaOther elements which may differ from person to person would be:Dining outTravel and VacationCar rent and Car insuranceCable TV connectionCost of Living in Canada for International StudentsSchool expensesThe tuition fee varies according to different universities, courses, and the city. The tuition expenses in Canada might be up to CDN $10,000 - $30,000 per year for an undergraduate course. And if you are thinking of applying to a postgraduate course, the cost would be $15,000 - $55,000 per year approximately.Living expensesOn an average, a student spends approximately CDN $10,000–$12,000 per year. But the expenses also depend on the place where a student stays. If a student stays in a metropolitan city like Toronto or Vancouver the expenses could go up to CDN $15,000 in comparison to a student studying in the suburbs where the expenses would be around CDN $8,000-$10,000 each year.Health insuranceInsurance Policy for international students is mandatory, as students have to stay abroad for a long period of time. Before getting an insurance policy make sure that it covers medical expenses, personal accident, dental treatment, study interruption, passport loss etc. Insurance is basically cashless so a student does not need to pay money at the time of hospitalization.ScholarshipsMerit and need-based fee waivers are awarded to international students. Candidate with strong academics, good performance in standardized exams and extracurricular achievements would be eligible for scholarship awards and financial assistance. To benefit from these opportunities, one has to make sure to send all the required documents by particular deadlines. In addition to this, the presentation of the application is also important because one is judged by the image one projects.Documents required: The documents usually needed for a scholarship application are as follow, although the requirements may differ:Academic records and photocopiesA recent CVA letter of intent, which acts as a cover pageCertificate of language proficiency (TOEFL or IELTS scores)Letters of Reference (LOR)LoansStudent eligibility criteria: The first thing is to be aware whether you are eligible to apply for the loan or not. The general eligibility criteria that are followed by all the banks are:You should be an Indian nationalYou must have a strong academic recordYou must be seeking admission to a professional, technical or another course of studies. Most banks maintain that the selected course should be job oriented.You must have secured admission to foreign University Institutions.You must be above the age of 18 years or else your parents can avail the loan.Read and download our Guide to Student Loans to understand the details better.Eligibility of course: You may not get a loan on every course. Here are the kinds of courses that qualify for the education loan:For Graduation: Job oriented professional or technical courses offered by reputed universitiesFor Post Graduation: MCA, MBA, MS or even diplomasThese courses could be from foreign universities or institutes approved by the state and central government.Loan amount: If your total fee is Rs 10 lakh, the bank may offer to give a loan of 80% of the amount and you will have to put in the balance 20%. This is called the margin amount. The maximum loan amount offered by banks for studies abroad is generally around Rs 20 lakh.If your tuition fees amount is Rs 30 lakh, you’ll have to manage the rest of the funds by yourself. Some banks charge a processing fee, while others don’t. it may be a fixed amount or a percentage of the total loan amount. So if the bank charges you 1% as processing fee, that will be an additional cost you’ll have to cover.Documentation required: You will have to provide the acceptance letter sent by the University reflecting that you have been selected for the course and the schedule of fees. You will also need to show the mark sheet of the last qualifying examination to show your academic record.All banks have different requirement for documentation, so you need to confirm with the bank first.Repayment: Repayment starts only after the course period. If the student got employed within one year after completion of the course, the repayment should start immediately after the expiry of one month from the date of employment.If you do not secure a job within a year of completing the course, then repayment starts irrespective of whether or not you are employed. The loan is generally to be repaid in 5-7 years after commencement of repayment. If the student is not able to complete the course within the scheduled time, an extension of time for completion, of course, may be permitted for a maximum period of two years. Generally, you will get up to a maximum number of 10 years to repay the loan.VisaConditionsYou should apply for the student visa after you get the college acceptance letter. You should begin with the visa process around June if aiming at the September intake. Following are the documents needed to apply.Proof of acceptance: If you plan to attend any school (primary or secondary), college, university or other educational institution in Canada, the school must complete and send you a letter of acceptance. You must include the original letter with your study permit application.Proof of financial support: You must prove that you can support yourself and the family members who accompany you while you are in Canada.Note: Additional documentation may be required.During the personal interview, additional documents may be requested by the interviewer. These may be documents to prove evidence of academic or financial status. These may include:Transcripts, diplomas, degrees, or certificates from schools you attendedScores from tests, such as the TOEFL, SAT, GRE, or GMATYour intent to depart from Canada upon completion of the course of studyHow you will pay all educational, living and travel costsThere are several steps to apply for a visa.Check the processing times: The visa application cycle might take anywhere from 3-4 weeks. It is advisable to go through the Canadian consulate website to know the approximate time taken to process the student visa. Please note that the time shown is not a guarantee and is just an estimate.Determine how you will apply. There are two ways to apply:1. Apply onlineTo apply online you must have access to a scanner or camera to create electronic copies of your documents for uploading and have a valid credit card for payment. You will still be required to provide a finger scan at the regional Visa Application Centre (VAC).2. Apply in personDownload the application kit and read the instruction guide. The instruction guide contains important information about study permits and instructions to help you complete your application. Read the guide carefully and use the document checklist.Pay the processing fee: Refer to the fee schedule for the cost to apply for a study permit and how to pay. The processing fee is non-refundable in all cases. For biometrics, there will be more than 130 VACs in over 90 countries and all VACs will be equipped to collect biometric information (fingerprints and photograph). Indian students need to contact the local VFS office to apply for the visa.If your spouse/common-law partner and/or children are accompanying you and you are applying for temporary resident visas, work permits or study permits for them, then you will need to pay the appropriate processing fees for them.Submit your application and supporting documents - Since you need to give your biometrics, you can’t mail in your application. You’ll either have to apply online or submit your application in person at a VFS office. In either case, you will need to go to a VAC to give your biometrics.Medical ExamThe visa application process to Canada requires a compulsory medical test for Indian applicants. Your own doctor cannot perform the medical exam. You must see a doctor on the list of panel physicians, which is provided on the official Canada immigration website http://www.cic.gc.ca/. Once your exam has been completed, the physician will send the results to CIC. You can choose to get the test done either before or after submitting the visa application.Work permitThe eligibility criteria to get a Post Study Work Permit are as follows:You should have pursued a full-time course in Canada.The length of your course should have been more than 8 months.You must have graduated from either a public post-secondary institution or a private post-secondary institution orYou should apply for a work permit within three months (90 days) after receiving an official letter saying that you have successfully completed your education from the Institute.You will be given the work permit only if you have a student visa.You cannot get a work permit longer than your course duration. If your course duration was eight months, then you will receive a work permit for eight months. If your course duration was more than two years, then you may receive a work permit for three years.Working while studying in Canada Easy or Difficult?Visa for spouseSpouses can accompany full-time students on a Dependent visa. You only need to show that adequate funds are available for their support. Spouses can also work full time if his/her stay is for a year or more.Checklist before departurePre-departure listBook airline ticketsBuy travel and health insuranceArrange accommodation in CanadaArrange transportation to/from the airport to home in CanadaArrange your banking – consider buying traveler’s chequesCheck baggage and customs limitationsClear all paperwork with your home educational institutionGet your documents in order and make photocopies to store in your baggage and keep at home, including:PassportAirline ticketsTravel insurance certificateLetter of Acceptance by the educational institution;Key addresses and phone numbersA bank statement showing proof of fundsPrescriptions for any medication you are carryingTraveler’s cheques—if applicableMedical and immunization recordsAcademic history and university transcriptsOnce you landHomesicknessHomesickness is a predictable problem faced by most students at one point or another. It may occur at the beginning or even well into your year. Homesickness will pass. Be patient. Give it at least two weeks. If you are feeling sad, talk about it and share your feelings with your friends. Do not hide in your room; if you do, the homesickness will only worsen. Find your counselor on staff with whom you can talk about homesickness or other problems.Homesickness might be made worse by frequent, long telephone calls home. Most homesick students feel more homesick after a call home than they did before they picked up the phone. Try to limit yourself to one call home every week. The sooner you integrate into the university experience, the sooner your homesickness will pass.Your first few weeks in CanadaThe first weeks of the first semester are a busy time for every new international (and Canadian) student during which everyone is learning about the campus and classes while making new friends. You should take the time to get to know your University:Explore campus to familiarize yourself with where you need to go when registering for your program, attending classes, getting your meals and visiting new friends.Join the International Student Club.Find out what learning resources and workshops are available for international students.Get your student identification card: it will be your passport around the campus. (if applicable)Take advantage of the student services on offer: use the fitness facilities at the recreation center, find the student bookstore and browse in the library.Learn basic cookingCooking for yourself will save you money. Indian food is expensive in Canada. Making it on your own will satisfy your urge to eat ‘your food’ during moments of 'homesickness'. Indian spices are not commonly available in smaller cities, but you may find shops on campus where you can get ingredients used in most Indian cuisine.Post study optionsPost-Graduation Work Permit Program (PGWPP)The PGWPP allows post-graduate students who have studied at a participating Canadian university/college to gain Canadian work experience. Work experience gained through the PGWPP will ultimately help students qualify for permanent residence in Canada through the Canadian Experience Class (CEC).Duration - A post-graduation work permit can’t be valid for longer than the student’s course of study. For example, if your post-graduate course was of two years’ duration, then the work permit granted to you will also be of two years.The study program must be a minimum of eight months in length.Applying for Post-Graduation Work PermitYou must apply for a work permit within 90 days of receiving written confirmation from your university/college indicating that you have completed and passed your academic program.Get the application package, and fill the forms you need to fill.You must pay the Open Work Permit Holder fee and the Standard Work Permit fee in Canadian currency, either online or manually.The application kit will contain the mailing address where you need to send your application.PlacementsIndian students are used to the concept of campus placements and on-campus recruitment for getting jobs. There is no concept of placements Canada. Most Canadian universities have a cell called a Career Services Center, which helps you get jobs and helps you prepare for interviews. The on-campus recruitment is always driven by student interest. Companies that recruit through the University do not offer a job directly. What they offer is an internship or co-op. Companies like to see your work for a few months before they hire you full time.Co-Op Education ProgramIn a Cooperative program, a period of study alternates with work. The Student Co-op program is a formally structured program where the intent is to recruit students, while still in school, to fill permanent positions upon graduation. Co-op programs are generally undertaken at colleges and universities. Indian students who wish to participate in a co-op or internship program must apply for a work permit as well as a study permit.Eligibility criteria: To be eligible for a work permit, you must meet the following conditions:You must have a valid study visaYour intended employment must be related to your program of study in CanadaYour employment must be part of your academic program, certified by a letter from a responsible academic official of the institution.
I will be completing my studies B.Tech(IT) next year, what is the process to settle in Australia?Hello,Everything you need to know before studying in Australia - education system, visa requirement and process, Indians living in Australia, post-study options and more.1. About the countryAustralia is the largest country, geographically, and is a continent in itself. It lies in the southern hemisphere so the weather changes are opposite than those of India. Australia has five of the 30 best cities in the world for students to live in based on student mix, affordability, quality of life, and employment opportunities. The capital of Australia is Canberra.Education systemAustralia has the third highest number of international students in the world after United Kingdom and United States. It also has seven of the top 100 universities in the world. Australia's national quality assurance system is unique in its structure and rigour. The Australian Quality Training Framework has been set up by the government to strengthen the quality assurance processes in education.College Fit: At the higher education level, students have a wide range of options when they choose a college or university. Although there are agencies that attempt to rank colleges and universities, the concept of “fit” is also important. The GPA* of admitted students are important, but majors offered, location, number of students enrolled, and campus culture are all factors influencing a prospective student’s decision. Some colleges and universities are publicly funded, while others are privately supported.*GPA means grade point average. It is the average of all grades received.Popular student destinations: The top universities in Australia are The Australian National University, The University of New South Wales, The University of Melbourne,The University of Western Sydney, and Monash University (in no particular order). The area of New South Wales on the east coast of Australia is the centre of all its renowned academic institutes. Most of the best colleges in the country are situated in cities like Sydney, Canberra, Brisbane, Melbourne, and Perth. About 12,629 Indian students were studying in Australia during the academic year 2012-13. Accounting, Master of Business Administration (MBA), Health Care, Information Technology, and Hotel Management are the popular courses Indian students pursue in Australia.Safety in Australia: Australia is a multicultural society that welcomes people from other cultures, countries and backgrounds. While majority of Indian students studying in Australia have a positive experience of living and studying in Australia, there were a number of incidents of assault as well as of robbery during 2009 and 2010, which affected not only Indian students but also members of the larger Indian community in Australia. Presently, no such incidents have been reported and active efforts have been made by the Australian government to prevent such untoward incidents from happening in future.WeatherAustralia is diverse in its geography and climate. The country is located in the southern hemisphere. This means Australia's summer starts in December and winter begins in June. Nearly a third of Australia is in the tropics where the average temperatures are in the mid 20 degrees Celsius. The southern areas are in a temperate zone.Australian Capital Territory – This region covers Canberra. It has hot, dry summers, and cold winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. The average temperature in summers would be around 30°C to 15°C; in winters it would be around 11°C to 0°C.New South Wales – This region covers Sydney and its weather is very relaxing all round the year. The average temperature in summers would be around 22°C to 40°C; in winters it would be around 17°C to 8°C.Northern Territory – This region has a tropical climate, and has two distinct seasons, the 'Wet' and the 'Dry'. The Wet season spans from November until April and is characterised by increased humidity followed by monsoonal rains and storms. The 'Dry’ season, from May until October, is characterised by warm, dry sunny days and cool nights. This region covers Darwin. The average temperature in wet season would be around 33°C to 25°C; in dry season it would be around 35°C to 21°C.Queensland - Warm summers and mild winters are what you can expect here. This region covers Brisbane. The average temperature in summers would be around 20°C to 30°C; in winters it would be around 20°C to 10°C.South Australia – This region experiences mild weather with sunshine all the year round and covers Adelaide. The average temperature in summers would be around 17°C to 30°C; in winters it would be around 15°C to 6°C.Tasmania - Snow falls in the mountains in winter. However, most people in Tasmania live in towns and cities near the coast. The ocean moderates the temperatures there. It covers cities like Hobart and Devonport. The average temperature in summers would be around 25°C to 10°C; in winters it would be around 11°C to 4°C.Victoria – This region covers Melbourne. It enjoys warm summers, pleasant springs, mild autumns and crisp winters. The average temperature in summers would be around 26°C to 15°C; in winters it would be around 13°C to 6°C.Western Australia - This region covers Perth and is famous for its long days of sunshine, spotless blue skies and brilliant beaches. The average temperature in summers would be around 31°C to 18°C; in winters it would be around 17°C to 7°C.Lifestyle tipsAustralians are know to be friendly and helpful people, with a great sense of humour. Australia is considered one of the most competitive nations on Earth. This covers all areas of life including the workplace. While English is Australia’s national language, there are certain words and expressions that have come to be regarded as uniquely Australian through common usage. Some of them might seem strange to non-Australians.Australians love their sport, both playing it and watching it. The most loved sports in Australia include Australian football, rugby, and cricket. This relatively benign climate has resulted in a country where people spend a good deal of time outdoors at beaches, in the countryside or on sporting fields as either spectators or participants.Indians living in AustraliaThere were nearly 308,542 Indian immigrants living in Australia in 2011. They represent the second-largest immigrant group by country of origin, after China. Almost one-third of all Indian immigrants resided in Victoria.Download this guide to read it offlineGet it Now!2407 People downloaded this guide2. Student lifeAccommodationFirstly, you need to decide whether you want to live in university managed accommodation, or with a private landlord. Choosing university managed accommodation can also give you a catered or self-catered option. Catered accommodation offers the benefits of your meals being cooked for you and a degree of certainty with meal costs.If you have an idea about what you prefer, the accommodation office at your university will be able to tell you what accommodation they have available - so that’s the place to start. If you are thinking of renting from a private landlord or if your chosen university can’t offer you anything in its own residential facility, the accommodation office should be able to provide you with a list of private properties and landlords in the area.Wherever you choose to live, you should make sure that you know your contractual rights and responsibilities. In most cases you will be asked to enter into a tenancy agreement, which you should read thoroughly before you sign.OrientationOrientation week is mandatory for international students so ensure that you arrive before it starts. This is the time where you will be introduced to the university and its services, as well as enroll in your classes. It is essential that you read your guidebook, which is provided by the college. The guide explains each part of the admission process.ActivitiesAlong with sport, colleges offer extra-curricular activities that provide students a wide range of experiences. Music, drama, science and literary societies in colleges offer opportunities for outdoor education and other leisure activities. Visits to theatres, concerts, and places relevant to the courses of study such as art galleries and museums, religious centres or historical sites, scientific companies and projects are all part of college life.3. Admission processRequirementsThese vary between study programs and levels. For each course, Indian students will need to meet a minimum English language requirement. Along with that a minimum academic record of 65% and above in class XII will be required. Foundations and Diploma programs are available for students who have secured below 60%. The student should have completed 18 years of age before joining a degree program.It is important to note that these numbers are just for reference purpose, the actual numbers may differ from university to university.The following documents also need to be submitted:Attested copies of mark sheets of class X, XII, and the Bachelors degree (if applicable)At least, two academic reference letters from professors who have taught you most recentlyIf you have work experience then two letters of recommendation from the employer/manager who knows you well and can comment on your professional abilitiesStatement of Purpose (SOP)ResumePhotocopied score reports of GMAT / IELTS / TOEFLPortfolio (in case of Students applying for art and design courses & architecture programs)Others (certificates / achievements at the state and national level and extracurricular activities)Proof of fundsTimelineMost of the colleges in Australia accept online applications. You will have to visit each college's website to apply. In most cases, you will have to make an account on the college website to provide your basic information, submit the scanned version of your documents, and pay application fees. You will be informed about the application process and its stages through this account. Please refer to the website of the colleges of your choice to know the process of applying.Application fee: All colleges require that you pay an application fee while applying. The fee amount will differ depending upon the college and course being applied to, so check with individual colleges about their application fee.Steps: The common steps to applying for admission are as follows:Search for colleges and coursesContact schools and visit websites for informationNarrow down your list of schoolsTake the entrance exams like SAT, GMAT, GRE, TOEFL, IELTSWrite SOPs and ask for LORsApply to the colleges which fit your interestsAppear for video interviews to the colleges who shortlisted youIf accepted, apply for student visaSOP: A Statement of Purpose (SOP) is your introduction to the college and admission officers. It is always written in first person and describes the reason for applying to a particular college. It needs to highlight why you are a perfect fit for the college and why the college should accept you. The style of writing could differ from formal to casual, but it is important to remember that it should reflect your personality as well.Essay: Essays are also required to be submitted by a prospective student. Essays are an important part of the university admissions process. Students may be required to write one or two essays, along with a few optional essays too. Common topics include career aspirations, strengths and weaknesses, skills, experiences, and reasons for considering a particular school.LOR: A letter of recommendation (LOR) is a reference letter written by a third party describing the qualities, characteristics, and capabilities of the prospective student to recommend him to the college in terms of that individual’s ability to perform a particular task or function. The third party could be a professor, direct manager etc.Intake seasonsAustralia generally has two intakes i.e. February and July, with few universities offering multiple intakes in September & November. You should start your admission process around six months before the application deadline. Typically most universities have three deadlines, during one intake. It is up to the convenience of the students, which deadline to aim for. You should be done with your language and aptitude tests by three months before the deadline. The last three months should be dedicated to filling out the application form properly.It is essential to ensure that the ‘complete application process’ along with appearing for interviews and visa application procedure should be complete by Nov-Dec for the February intake.If you are looking to get admission into vocational courses, then some courses may have admissions open in January and perhaps even May or July.4. ExamsLanguage examsInternational English Language Testing System (IELTS), Test Of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and Pearson Test of English (PTE) are all standardised language tests, which are required to be taken for the purpose of getting admission into colleges. These follow different formats, structure and result bands. These tests are different in various ways but many colleges ask for any one of the results. So it's up to the student to decide which exam to appear for.Repetition of exams: IELTS can be taken unlimited number of times. TOEFL can be retaken as many times as wished, but cannot be taken more than once in a 12-day period. Same with PTE, it can be taken as many times as desired. You must wait to receive your scores before you can book your next test.Fee: The fee for these exams is Rs 9,300 for IELTS, Rs 10,000 for TOEFL and Rs 9,350 for PTE.Time to apply: Ideally, if you are aiming at the September intake you should appear for these exams by November, so that you can apply before the first deadline. The universities you will be applying to will mention which exam results they will accept. But if they give a choice to go for either of these, then the choice depends on you. The time required to prepare for IELTS/TOEFL/PTE would depend on the existing English language proficiency. You may require 2 to 4 months of preparation before the exam date.General examsGMAT - The Graduate Management Aptitude Test is used to measure the abilities of the potential MBA aspirant to undertake higher education in the field of business or management. It measures mathematical, english, and reasoning skills of the student.GRE - The Graduate Record Examination is another test required to be taken by students applying to graduate schools to pursue MA or MS. Increasingly many business schools are also accepting GRE scores for the purpose to granting admission for MBA.Repetition and Fee: You can give GMAT unlimited number of times, subject to five times a year and a gap of 30 days between two tests. You can take these tests with a gap of 30 days from the first time. The cost of GMAT is Rs 16,000, and GRE is Rs 12,000.Ideally, if you are aiming at the September intake you should appear for these exams by November, so that you can apply before the first deadline. The preparatory duration generally ranges from 4 to 6 months.Average Scores: The average GMAT accepted across universities is 520. Average GRE score is 145 for Verbal, 160 for Quantitative and 4.0 for Writing.It is important to note that these numbers are just for reference purpose, the actual scores may differ from university to university.5. Cost of livingThe cost of living depends heavily on what part of Australia will you be living in along with how much you will socialie. Some of the basic elements for living as an international student in Australia are:Accommodation rent ( on campus or off campus )Groceries and foodUtilities like electricity, water, gas, internetPhone billsText and reference booksAirfare for traveling back to IndiaOther elements which may differ from person to person would be:Dining outTravel and VacationCar rent and Car insuranceCable TV connectionSchool expensesThe tuition fee varies according to different universities, courses and the city. The tuition expenses in Australia might be up to $15,000 to $33,000 per year for an undergraduate course. And if you are thinking of applying to a postgraduate course, the cost would be $20,000 to $37,000 per year approximately.Living expensesThe Department of Immigration and Border Protection has financial requirements you must meet in order to receive a student visa. You must have $18,610 to study in Australia.Health insuranceOverseas Student Health Cover (OSHC) is compulsory and you will not be able to apply for your student visa until you have purchased a policy recommended by your host university. It includes cover for visits to the doctor, some hospital treatment, ambulance cover and limited pharmaceuticals (medicines). The Department of Immigration and Citizenship requires overseas students to maintain OSHC for the duration of time they are in Australia.ScholarshipsFee waivers are awarded to international students on the criteria of merit and need of it. Candidate with strong academics, good performance in standardised exams and extracurricular achievements would be eligible for scholarship awards and financial assistance. To benefit from these opportunities, one has to make sure to send all the required documents by particular deadlines. In addition to this, the presentation of the application is also important because one is judged by the image one projects.Documents required: The documents usually needed for a scholarship application are as follow, although the requirements may differ:Academic records and photocopiesA recent CVA letter of intent, which acts as a cover pageCertificate of Language Proficiency (TOEFL or IELTS scores)Letters of ReferenceLoansStudent Eligibility criteria: The first thing is to be aware whether you are eligible to apply for the loan or not. The general eligibility criteria that are followed by all the banks are –You should be an Indian nationalYou must have a strong academic recordYou must be seeking admission to a professional, technical or other course of studies. Most banks maintain that the selected course should be job oriented.You must have secured admission to foreign university institutions.You must be above the age of 18 years or else your parents can avail the loan.Eligibility for course: You may not get a loan on every course. Here are the kinds of courses that qualify for the education loan.For Graduation: Job oriented professional or technical courses offered by reputed universitiesFor Post Graduation: MCA, MBA, MS and also diplomasThese courses could be from foreign universities or institutes approved by the state and central government.Loan amount: If your total fee is Rs 10 lakh, the bank may offer to give a loan of 80% of the amount and you will have to put in the balance 20%. This is called the margin amount. The maximum loan amount offered by banks for studies abroad is generally around Rs 20 lakh.If your tuition fees amount is Rs 30 lakh, you’ll have to manage the rest of the funds by yourself. Some banks charge a processing fee, while others don’t. it may be a fixed amount or a percentage of the total loan amount. So if the bank charges you 1% as processing fee, that will be an additional cost you’ll have to cover.Documentation required: You will have to provide the acceptance letter sent by the University reflecting that you have been selected for the course and the schedule of fees. You will also need to show the mark sheet of the last qualifying examination to show your academic record.All banks have different requirement for documentation, so you need to confirm with the bank first.Repayment: Repayment starts only after the course period. If the student got employed within one year after completion of the course, the repayment should start immediately after the expiry of one month from the date of employment.If you do not secure a job within a year of completing the course, then repayment starts irrespective of whether or not you are employed. The loan is generally to be repaid in 5-7 years after commencement of repayment. If the student is not able to complete the course within the scheduled time, extension of time for completion of course may be permitted for a maximum period of two years. Generally, you will get up to a maximum number of 10 years to repay the loan.6. VisaConditionsIf you want to attend a University or college in Australia you will need a student visa. Following documents will be required for the application purposes –Valid Passport - Your passport must be valid for at least six months beyond your period of stay in the Australia.Nonimmigrant Visa ApplicationApplication fee payment receipt, as you are required to pay before your interviewConfirmation of Enrolment Form (COE) To obtain a visa to study in Australia you must be fully enrolled in an Australian institution and receive a “Confirmation of Enrollment (COE)”. These forms are issued by the Australian institution you will be attending. The forms are usually issued after the tuition fees have been received.Acceptance letter from your host university, this will include the proposed study planLetter from your current institution confirming status as a Study Abroad StudentOverseas health insurance receipt2 or 4 passport sized photographsNote: Additional Documentation May Be Required. During the personal interview additional documents may be requested by the interviewer. These may be documents to prove evidence of academic or financial status -Transcripts, diplomas, degrees, or certificates from schools you attendedScores from tests that your college required, such as the TOEFL, SAT, GRE, or GMATYour intent to depart Australia upon completion of the course of studyHow you will pay all educational, living and travel costsProcessThe average time taken by the Australian High Commission for the visa procedure is anywhere between 8 to 12 weeks depending on the individual’s background, so the students need to apply for their visas at least three months prior to their course commencement.As an international student, you must complete your course within the minimum course duration listed on your CoE. You must leave Australia after completion of your studies. If you wish to stay in Australia for your graduation ceremony, you may need to apply for a visitor class visa.Work permitStudent visa holders are allowed to work up to 40 hours per fortnight during their study in Australia. The spouses of Masters and PhD students can work unlimited hours. If you are doing voluntary, unpaid work, it is not included in the limit of 40 hours per fortnight.Visa for spouseThe partner of the student gets a Dependent Visa and a valid work permit for the same duration as the primary applicant. This is applicable only for Master's degree application.Please note that the Student Visas for Australia have changes effective July 1, 2016. Please read about the New Student Visa Guide for Australia to understand the various rules.7. Checklist before departureYour checklist before you leave for AustraliaBook airline ticketsArrange accommodation in AustraliaArrange transportation to/from the airport to home in AustraliaArrange your banking – consider buying traveler’s chequesCheck baggage and customs limitationsClear all paperwork with your home educational institutionGet your documents in order and make photocopies to store in your baggage and keep at home, including:PassportAirline ticketsTravel insurance certificateLetter of Acceptance by the educational institutionKey addresses and phone numbersA bank statement showing proof of fundsPrescriptions for any medication you are carryingTraveler’s cheques—if applicableMedical and immunization recordsAcademic history and university transcripts8. Once you landHomesicknessHomesickness is a predictable problem faced by most students at one point or another. It may occur at the beginning or even well into your year. Homesickness will pass. Be patient. Give it at least two weeks. If you are feeling sad, explain what is happening to your friends. Do not hide in your room; if you do, the homesickness will only worsen. Find your counselor on staff with whom you can talk about homesickness or other problems.Homesickness might be made worse by frequent, long telephone calls home. Most homesick students feel more homesick after a call home than they did before they picked up the phone. Try to limit yourself to one call home every week. The sooner you integrate into the university experience, the sooner your homesickness will pass.Shopping in AustraliaLarge shopping malls and supermarkets like Wal-Mart, Target in the Australia are one-stop shops for all of your daily needs. Be vigilant to ensure that all of your shopping is properly billed and that you keep the bills with you at all times.Learning basic cookingCooking for yourself will save you money. Indian food is expensive in Australia. It will also satisfy your urge to eat ‘your food’ during moments of cultural shock. Indian spices are not commonly available in smaller cities, but there are often shops on campus where you can get ingredients used in most Indian food.TravelEach large city has and provides different methods of public transportation, such as buses, taxis or trains. You might wish to rely on a private car for transportation. Even with the rising cost of petrol, private cars are the most economical and convenient mode of transportation because you get a lot of flexibility and freedom with your car. You can travel wherever and whenever you want, and don't have to depend on the schedule of public transport. However, before you buy your own car, you will have to use public transportation or ask friends for rides.Stay on Student VisaWhen you enter Australia, you may remain there as long as you are enrolled in the school to complete your academic program. After the program ends you may apply for the temporary graduate visa through either the new post-study work stream or the graduate work stream provided you meet the specific eligibility requirements. The duration of the subclass 485 visa you are granted will depend on the qualification that you have used to qualify for the arrangements.9. Post studies optionsPlacementsIndian students are used to the concept of campus placements and on-campus recruitment for getting jobs. There is no concept of placements in Australia, like most other countries. Most Australian Universities have a cell called a Career Services Center, which helps you get jobs and help you prepare for interviews. The on-campus recruitment is always driven by student interest. Companies that recruit through the university do not offer a job directly. What they offer is an internship or co-op. Companies like to see your work for few months before they hire you full time.Work visaGraduates who have completed a Bachelor’s degree, Master’s degree may be eligible to apply for a two year post-study work visa. Graduates who have completed a Master’s by research degree or a Doctorate may be eligible to apply for a three or four year post-study work visa respectively. Other graduates may be eligible to apply for an 18 month subclass 485 visa through the graduate work stream.
Where is the documentation that George Washington turned down the kingship?Q. Where is the documentation that George Washington turned down the kingship?A. None existsDid George Washington Turn Down An Offer To Be A King?The Man Who Would Not Be KingWas George Washington Really Offered a Chance to be King of the U.S.?George Washington: The Reluctant President10 Facts about Washington's ElectionGeorge Washington: Life Before the Presidency | Miller CenterAn Engraving of George Washington and His FamilyDid George Washington Turn Down An Offer To Be A King?The answer is: No. There is no evidence that this ever happened. But the story, in various forms, has been around for a long time.The Story Behind the MythGrover FurrMontclair State UniversityMarch 2007What is the origin of this story?The best account of the origins and development of this myth is by Robert F. Haggard, "The Nicola Affair: Lewis Nicola, George Washington, and American Military Discontent during the Revolutionary War," Proceedings of The American Philosophical Society Vol. 146, No. 2, June 2002, pp. 139-169, on line at the APS site here:http://www.aps-pub.com/proceedin...Haggard first summarizes how the myth grew by reviewing accounts of it in historical works. The earliest of them, published in 1823, states ""a letter was handed to Washington containing the demand of some for a monarchy, and himself the king." From there the story grew. As recently as 1984 a prominent American historian wrote that "Washington’s refusal to countenance Nicola’s scheme ‘signifies the death of the monarchical idea in the United States and the total triumph of representative government.’" (Haggard p. 142).Haggard’s essay is the fullest answer to the question posed in my title. This short essay simply attempts to amplify and clarify it, and to present the relevant evidentiary documents in an authoritative and accessible format.Haggard writes:…[H]istorians have not always been wary enough of stories that appear tailor-made for their subjects, particularly when the source of that story is another secondary account. The thought of George Washington selflessly refusing the offer of a "crown" at the close of the Revolutionary War is so appealing, both to readers and writers of history, that its exclusion from the record would seem almost criminal. Third, biographers have not always treated fairly figures of secondary importance to the life of their primary subject.…That historians have not done so is attributable to one simple fact: they have not read the letters that Nicola wrote to Washington on 22, 23, 24, and 28 May 1782. If they had, they would have known that Nicola was only speaking for himself; that he was not advocating the overthrow of the government of the United States, but the establishment of a new state on its western border; and that he did not offer Washington a crown directly. (pp. 168-9)This is not quite right. Nicola did not "offer" Washington a "crown" at all, for Nicola had no crown to give.At most, Nicola was floating an idea of his own, but one he was utterly incapable of bringing into being, and gently suggesting that Washington might consider the desirability of establishing a new state, headed by a king. It’s inaccurate, therefore, to say that Washington turned down a chance to be king.Here is my transcription from the handwritten original of the whole text of Nicola’s letter. I believe this is the first time a completely transcript has been published. Links to the images of the original, at the Library of Congress website, are included.Washington Crosses the Delaware - Painting and StoryCol Nicola’s letter to Washington of May 22, 1782The "Edsitement" page on the end of the Revolutionary War contains this statement:The first test of Washington's resolve came in a letter (and a series of observations appended to the letter) from one of his officers, Lewis Nicola, dated May 22, 1782. (NOTE: The letter is available in the George Washington Papers collection on the EDSITEment-reviewed website American Memory, but unfortunately has not been transcribed. Interested students might want to try to do some transcribing, but this would be an extension, not part of this lesson.I have transcribed the entire letter from the American Memory site here, and have also included links to the scanned pages of the original letter at the Library of Congress’ American Memory site.http://chss.montclair.edu/englis...The "Newburgh Addresses" of March 1782Sometimes Col. Nicola’s letter is confused with the "Newburgh Addresses" of two months earlier. Or it is said that the "Newburgh Addresses" contain an offer to make Washington king.But this is not true either, as a study of these documents shows.The two anonymous "Newburgh Addresses" are on-line in the Journals of the Continental Congress, volume 24, whose Home Page ishttp://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amla...They are identified by Kohn, notes 65 and 73. for the Kohn article, see p. 165, note 102 of the Haggard article I cited.Neither of the "Newburgh Addresses" mentions anything remotely resembling an offer, suggestion, etc. about calling for Washington to be king.I've downloaded the pages as TIF files and converted the TIFs to PDFs. You can read them here:1. Washington's letter of introduction to the two "Newburgh Addresses" –http://chss.montclair.edu/englis...2. The First "Newburgh Address" –http://chss.montclair.edu/englis...The same text is posted at another site:http://www.earlyamerica.com/earl...3. The Second "Newburgh Address" –http://chss.montclair.edu/englis...25 Things You Probably Didn't Know About George WashingtonThe Man Who Would Not Be KingGeorge Washington is one of the most recognized figures in U.S. history. But familiarity breeds contempt. More often than not, Washington is an old painting on the wall - solemn, impersonal and distant - or the subject of childhood stories and nursery rhymes. We all know that he chopped down a cherry tree and had wooden teeth.The actual Washington is much more compelling. We can all see the brilliant flourishes of Jefferson's pen, Madison's constitutional handiwork or the success of Hamilton's economic policies, and that can cause us to overlook or underestimate the magnitude of Washington's achievement. Yet he really was, as Washington's greatest biographer, James Flexner, put it, the "indispensable man" of the American founding.Remember that we look at history with the luxury of knowing what happened. What might seem inevitable or obvious in hindsight was more often than not a bold course, the outcome of which was uncertain at best. We must recapture this sense of contingency and daring if we are to understand Washington.A soldier by profession and a surveyor by trade, Washington was first and foremost a man of action. He was at every important intersection of the American founding; his decisions and practical wisdom were crucial to the success of the effort at every stage. And at every moment - from the time he became commander in chief to his death - his project was to found a self-governing nation, a constitutional republic. It is here that we see the brilliance of Washington's statesmanship, his hand on the political pulse of the nation, all the while urging, counseling, warning, bolstering and leading his fellow patriots in their common efforts.From 1775 onward, when the Continental Congress appointed him military commander of continental forces, Washington personified the American Revolution and was the de-facto leader of the colonial struggle. For eight years, Gen. Washington led his small army through the rigors of war, from the defeats in New York and the risky crossing of the Delaware River to the hardships of Valley Forge and the ultimate triumph at Yorktown.Through force of character and great leadership, Washington transformed an underfunded militia into a capable force that, although never able to take the British army head-on, outwitted and defeated the mightiest military power in the world. Washington lost many more battles than he won, but his defensive strategy achieved his political objective: an independent and unified nation.After the war, Washington was the central hub of correspondence among the most thoughtful men of the day, leading the effort in nation-building. He was instrumental in bringing about the Constitutional Convention, and his widely publicized participation gave the resulting document a credibility and legitimacy it would otherwise have lacked. Having been immediately and unanimously elected president of the convention, he worked actively throughout the proceedings to create the new Constitution. "Be assured," James Monroe once reminded Thomas Jefferson, "his influence carried this government."Washington Corwallis - George Washington Pictures - HISTORY.comAs our first president, he set the precedents that define what it means to be a constitutional executive: strong and energetic, aware of the limits of authority but guarding the prerogatives of office. The vast powers of the presidency, as one Convention delegate wrote, would not have been made as great "had not many of the members cast their eyes towards General Washington as president; and shaped their ideas of the powers to be given to a president by their opinions of his virtue."And the key ingredient in all of these things was moral character, something that Washington took very seriously and which gave to his decision-making a deeply prudential quality and to his authority an unmatched magnanimity. "His integrity was pure, his justice the most inflexible I have ever known, no motives of interest or consanguinity, of friendship or hatred, being able to bias his decision," Jefferson later observed. "He was, indeed, in every sense of the words, a wise, a good, and a great man."It is no coincidence, then, that Washington's most important legacy comes during moments of temptation, when the lure of power was before him. Twice during the Revolution, in 1776 and again in 1777 when Congress was forced to abandon Philadelphia in the face of advancing British troops, Gen. Washington was granted virtually unlimited powers to maintain the war effort and preserve civil society, powers not unlike those assumed in an earlier era by Roman dictators. He shouldered the responsibility but gave the authority back as soon as possible.After the war, there were calls for Washington to claim formal political power. Indeed, seven months after the victory at Yorktown, one of his officers suggested what many thought only reasonable in the context of the 18th century: that America should establish a monarchy and that Washington should become king. A shocked Washington immediately rejected the offer out of hand as both inappropriate and dishonorable, and demanded the topic never be raised again.More subtle and problematic was a move by a group of officers in 1783 to use the military, with or without Washington's participation, to threaten the Continental Congress in order to ensure their payment of the army. The Newburgh Conspiracy placed Washington in a critical and delicate position. Had he either ignored the discontent or tacitly approved it, the political outcome would have been different and the possibility of a peaceful resolution of constitutional questions less likely.On top of that, several political leaders welcomed the army's pressure, and wanted to use the threat as a way of strengthening their call for a stronger national government. Congressman Alexander Hamilton recommended that Washington "take the direction of them" and lead the effort.But Washington would have none of it. "The Army," he rebuked young Hamilton, "is a dangerous instrument to play with." Instead, he responded to the unsigned papers calling for the army to stand up against the political leadership, by holding a meeting of his officers for March 15 - the Ides of March - 1783. There, Washington denounced the move as destructive of the very ground of republican government, and expressed his "utmost horror and detestation" of those who would "open the flood Gates of Civil discord, and deluge our rising Empire in Blood."After the speech, Washington drew a letter from his pocket expressing Congress' intention to redress the army. He hesitated, pulled out a pair of glasses and remarked, "Gentlemen, you will permit me to put on my spectacles, for I have not only grown gray, but almost blind, in the service of my country." Many of the officers were in tears. If the speech had not already destroyed the movement, this remark assured its demise."On other occasions he had been supported by the exertions of the army and the countenance of his friends," wrote Capt. Samuel Shaw of the episode, "but in this he stood single and alone."By year's end, Washington, victorious in war, proceeded voluntarily to resign his military commission. When he stepped down again, after his second term as president, a dumbfounded King George III proclaimed him "the greatest character of the age." His peaceful transfer of the presidency to John Adams in 1797 inaugurated one of America's greatest democratic traditions.Without Washington, America would never have won its war of independence; he was the catalyst of the American founding. Even more signNow, he proved that republican government was not only possible but indeed noble. Defeated and exiled, Napoleon lamented the significance of it all: "They wanted me to be another Washington."No one did more to put the United States on the path to success than Washington. No one did more to assure a government with sufficient power to function but sufficient limits to allow freedom to flourish. No one walked away from power with more dignity or did more to assure the prosperous society we enjoy today. This is why Washington and Washington alone - not Jefferson, not Madison, not Hamilton - is the father of this country.Celebrated as early as 1778, Washington's Birthday was by the early 18th century second only to the Fourth of July as a patriotic holiday. It was officially recognized by Congress as a national holiday in 1870. The Monday Holiday Law in 1968 moved it from Feb. 22 to the third Monday in February. Contrary to popular opinion, though, no act of Congress or order by any president has changed Washington's Birthday to "Presidents Day."If Americans wish to honor George Washington, they should recall his deeds, recollect his advice, and once again call the holiday celebrating him what it is, in fact: Washington's Birthday.Matthew Spalding, Ph.D., is Director of the B. Kenneth Simon Center for American Studies.The Plot to Steal Washington’s HeadWas George Washington Really Offered a Chance to be King of the U.S.?BY DAVE ROOS JUL 31, 2018General George Washington resigns his commission as Commander-in-Chief of the Army to the Congress, on Dec. 23, 1783. This action was of great significance in establishing of civilian rather than military rule, leading to democracy rather than a dictatorship or monarchy. This painting hangs in the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol. JOYE~(CC BY 2.0)There's a popular yarn among American history buffs that George Washington, in the waning months of the Revolutionary War, was "offered the crown" of the fledgling nation by a group of American military officers fed up with an ineffective Congress. Historians even have Washington's strongly worded rejection letter to prove it.But a closer reading of original historical documents tells a different story. In this version, the widespread frustration of army officers gets mixed up with the pro-monarchy daydreams of one foolhardy colonel. Washington still comes out a hero, but he was never really close to being a king.To set the scene, the British suffered a decisive defeat at Yorktown to American and French forces in 1781, resulting in the capture of 7,000 British troops and their leader, General Charles Cornwallis. The end of the war was finally near, but the beleaguered American Army, under the command of Washington, was still considered "on duty" until the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783.Back in those pre-Constitution days, the Articles of Confederation handed most power to the states, not the federal government. Congress had no power to tax, for example, which was a problem when it came to paying and equipping the army. Congress had to constantly request military funding from the states, which were often slow to pay up, if at all.With peace nearly won, the army feared that Congress was going to stiff them on back pay. The officer corps were especially worried about their pensions, which they were promised would secure them financially for the rest of their lives. Could they trust Congress to keep its word and exact payment from the states?Among the army officers sweating over his pension in 1782 was Colonel Lewis Nicola, a 65-year-old, Irish-born military veteran who lent signNow expertise to Washington's forces during the war. Nicola and Washington corresponded frequently, usually about Nicola's duties as commander of the Invalid Corps, a garrison of injured soldiers who were still fit enough to serve.But Nicola's letter to Washington on May 22, 1872 was something completely different. In this now infamous missive, Nicola opened with a reminder of what's at stake if the military wasn't properly compensated. Namely, the threat of open mutiny."God forbid we should ever think of involving that country we have, under your conduct & auspices, rescued from oppression, into a new scene of blood & confusion; but it cannot be expected we should forego claims on which our future subsistence & that of our families depend," wrote Nicola.Then Nicola moved on to what he called his "scheme." He admitted to Washington that he wasn't a "violent admirer of a republican form of government," preferring instead a mixed form of government with elected representatives ruled by a benevolent monarch. And who better for such a leading role than Washington himself?"... the same abilities which have lead us, through difficulties apparently insurmountable by human power, to victory & glory, those qualities that have merited & obtained the universal esteem & veneration of an army, would be most likely to conduct & direct us in the smoother paths of peace," wrote Nicola."Some people have so connected the ideas of tyranny & monarchy as to find it very difficult to separate them, it may therefore be requisite to give the head of such a constitution as I propose, some title apparently more moderate, but if all other things were once adjusted I believe strong arguments might be produced for admitting the title of king, which I conceive would be attended with some material advantages."Washington's response, dated the very same day, was withering."Be assured Sir, no occurrence in the course of the War, has given me more painful sensations than your information of there being such ideas existing in the Army as you have expressed, and I must view with abhorrence, and reprehend with severity," wrote Washington."I am much at a loss to conceive what part of my conduct could have given encouragement to an address which to me seems big with the greatest mischiefs that can befall my Country. If I am not deceived in the knowledge of myself, you could not have found a person to whom your schemes are more disagreeable."Washington's rejection of an American monarchy was absolute, but was a single letter from a presumptuous colonel the equivalent of being "offered the crown," as many believe?Denver Brunsman, a history professor at George Washington University and scholar of the Revolutionary War and Washington, says that it would be an "exaggeration" to say that Washington was ever seriously offered the title of king."Nicola was not someone who was in the position to do that and I don't think he was part of any real, large movement," says Brunsman. "That doesn't mean there weren't people who had those sentiments and I think Nicola was representative of that. There were other individuals in the officer corps who were extremely frustrated with Congress and any hope for a possible solution.""What's most important is Washington's reaction to even the notion [of being king]. He shuts down any possibility. I think that's impressive and shows why Washington was able to garner the trust of the American people."Nicola's letter is an interesting blip in American history, but a far more serious threat to the young republic was the Newburgh Conspiracy of 1783, as close as the American army came to a coup. Again, Washington quashed the mutiny by reminding his officers what they had fought for. In a stirring address, "Washington basically gave them a civics lesson," says Brunsman. "There's an appropriate way to do this in a republic, and this isn't it."How George Washington Swindled His Way To The TopGeorge Washington: The Reluctant PresidentEditor’s note: Even as the Constitution was being ratified, Americans looked toward a figure of singular probity to fill the new office of the presidency. On February 4, 1789, the 69 members of the Electoral College made George Washington the only chief executive to be unanimously elected. Congress was supposed to make the choice official that March but could not muster a quorum until April. The reason—bad roads—suggests the condition of the country Washington would lead. In a new biography, Washington: A Life, Ron Chernow has created a portrait of the man as his contemporaries saw him. The excerpt below sheds light on the president’s state of mind as the first Inauguration Day approached.The Congressional delay in signNowing George Washington’s election as president only allowed more time for doubts to fester as he considered the herculean task ahead. He savored his wait as a welcome “reprieve,” he told his former comrade in arms and future Secretary of War Henry Knox, adding that his “movements to the chair of government will be accompanied with feelings not unlike those of a culprit who is going to the place of his execution.” His “peaceful abode” at Mount Vernon, his fears that he lacked the requisite skills for the presidency, the “ocean of difficulties” facing the country—all gave him pause on the eve of his momentous trip to New York. In a letter to his friend Edward Rutledge, he made it seem as if the presidency was little short of a death sentence and that, in accepting it, he had given up “all expectations of private happiness in this world.”The day after Congress counted the electoral votes, declaring Washington the first president, it dispatched Charles Thomson, the secretary of Congress, to bear the official announcement to Mount Vernon. The legislators had chosen a fine emissary. A well-rounded man, known for his work in astronomy and mathematics, the Irish-born Thomson was a tall, austere figure with a narrow face and keenly penetrating eyes. He couldn’t have relished the trying journey to Virginia, which was “much impeded by tempestuous weather, bad roads, and the many large rivers I had to cross.” Yet he rejoiced that the new president would be Washington, whom he venerated as someone singled out by Providence to be “the savior and father” of the country. Having known Thomson since the Continental Congress, Washington esteemed him as a faithful public servant and exemplary patriot.Around noon on April 14, 1789, Washington flung open the door at Mount Vernon and greeted his visitor with a cordial embrace. Once in the privacy of the mansion, he and Thomson conducted a stiff verbal minuet, each man reading from a prepared statement. Thomson began by declaring, “I am honored with the commands of the Senate to wait upon your Excellency with the information of your being elected to the office of President of the United States of America” by a unanimous vote. He read aloud a letter from Senator John Langdon of New Hampshire, the president pro tempore. “Suffer me, sir, to indulge the hope that so auspicious a mark of public confidence will meet your approbation and be considered as a sure pledge of the affection and support you are to expect from a free and enlightened people.” There was something deferential, even slightly servile, in Langdon’s tone, as if he feared that Washington might renege on his promise and refuse to take the job. Thus was greatness once again thrust upon George Washington.Any student of Washington’s life might have predicted that he would acknowledge his election in a short, self-effacing speech full of disclaimers. “While I realize the arduous nature of the task which is conferred on me and feel my inability to perform it,” he replied to Thomson, “I wish there may not be reason for regretting the choice. All I can promise is only that which can be accomplished by an honest zeal.” This sentiment of modesty jibed so perfectly with Washington’s private letters that it could not have been feigned: he wondered whether he was fit for the post, so unlike anything he had ever done. The hopes for republican government, he knew, rested in his hands. As commander in chief, he had been able to wrap himself in a self-protective silence, but the presidency would leave him with no place to hide and expose him to public censure as nothing before.Because the vote counting had been long delayed, Washington, 57, felt the crush of upcoming public business and decided to set out promptly for New York on April 16, accompanied in his elegant carriage by Thomson and aide David Humphreys. His diary entry conveys a sense of foreboding: “About ten o’clock, I bade adieu to Mount Vernon, to private life, and to domestic felicity and, with a mind oppressed with more anxious and painful sensations than I have words to express, set out for New York...with the best dispositions to render service to my country in obedience to its call, but with less hope of answering its expectations.” Waving goodbye was Martha Washington, who wouldn’t join him until mid-May. She watched her husband of 30 years depart with a mixture of bittersweet sensations, wondering “when or whether he will ever come home again.” She had long doubted the wisdom of this final act in his public life. “I think it was much too late for him to go into public life again,” she told her nephew, “but it was not to be avoided. Our family will be deranged as I must soon follow him.”Determined to travel rapidly, Washington and his entourage set out each day at sunrise and put in a full day on the road. Along the way he hoped to keep ceremonial distractions to a minimum, but he was soon disabused: eight exhausting days of festivities lay ahead. He had only traveled ten miles north to Alexandria when the townspeople waylaid him with a dinner, lengthened by the mandatory 13 toasts. Adept at farewells, Washington was succinctly eloquent in response. “Unutterable sensations must then be left to more expressive silence, while, from an aching heart, I bid you all, my affectionate friends and kind neighbors, farewell.”Before long, it was apparent that Washington’s journey would form the republican equivalent of the procession to a royal coronation. As if already a seasoned politician, he left a trail of political promises in his wake. While in Wilmington, he addressed the Delaware Society for Promoting Domestic Manufacturers and imparted a hopeful message. “The promotion of domestic manufactures will, in my conception, be among the first consequences which may naturally be expected to flow from an energetic government.” Arriving in Philadelphia, he was met by local dignitaries and asked to mount a white horse for his entry into town. When he crossed a bridge over the Schuylkill, it was wreathed with laurels and evergreens, and a cherubic boy, aided by a mechanical device, lowered a laurel crown over his head. Recurrent cries of “Long Live George Washington” confirmed what his former aide James McHenry had already told him before he left Mount Vernon: “You are now a king under a different name.”As Washington entered Philadelphia, he found himself, willy-nilly, at the head of a full-scale parade, with 20,000 people lining the streets, their eyes fixed on him in wonder. “His Excellency rode in front of the procession, on horseback, politely bowing to the spectators who filled the doors and windows by which he passed,” reported the Federal Gazette, noting that church bells rang as Washington proceeded to his old haunt, the City Tavern. After the bare-knuckled fight over the Constitution, the newspaper editorialized, Washington had united the country. “What a pleasing reflection to every patriotic mind, thus to see our citizens again united in their reliance on this great man who is, a second time, called upon to be the savior of his country!” By the next morning, Washington had grown tired of the jubilation. When the light horse cavalry showed up to accompany him to Trenton, they discovered he had left the city an hour earlier “to avoid even the appearance of pomp or vain parade,” reported one newspaper.As Washington approached the bridge over Assunpink Creek in Trenton, the spot where he had stood off the British and Hessians, he saw that the townsfolk had erected a magnificent floral arch in his honor and emblazoned it with the words “December 26, 1776” and the proclamation “The Defender of the Mothers will also Defend the Daughters.” As he rode closer, 13 young girls, robed in spotless white, walked forward with flower-filled baskets, scattering petals at his feet. Astride his horse, tears standing in his eyes, he returned a deep bow as he noted the “astonishing contrast between his former and actual situation at the same spot.” With that, three rows of women—young girls, unmarried ladies and married ones—burst into a fervent ode on how he had saved fair virgins and matrons alike. The adulation only quickened Washington’s self-doubt. “I greatly apprehend that my countrymen will expect too much from me,” he wrote to Rutledge. “I fear, if the issue of public measures should not correspond with their sanguine expectations, they will turn the extravagant...praises which they are heaping upon me at this moment into equally extravagant...censures.” There was no way, it seemed, that he could dim expectations or escape public reverence.By now sated with adulation, Washington preserved a faint hope that he would be allowed to make an inconspicuous entry into New York. He had pleaded with Gov. George Clinton to spare him further hoopla: “I can assure you, with the utmost sincerity, that no reception can be so congenial to my feelings as a quiet entry devoid of ceremony.” But he was fooling himself if he imagined he might slip unobtrusively into the temporary capital. Never reconciled to the demands of his celebrity, Washington still fantasized that he could shuck that inescapable burden. When he arrived at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, on April 23, he beheld an impressive phalanx of three senators, five congressmen and three state officials awaiting him. He must have intuited, with a sinking sensation, that this welcome would eclipse even the frenzied receptions in Philadelphia and Trenton. Moored to the wharf was a special barge, glistening with fresh paint, constructed in his honor and equipped with an awning of red curtains in the rear to shelter him from the elements. To nobody’s surprise, the craft was steered by 13 oarsmen in spanking white uniforms.As the barge drifted into the Hudson River, Washington made out a Manhattan shoreline already “crowded with a vast concourse of citizens, waiting with exulting anxiety his arrival,” a local newspaper said. Many ships anchored in the harbor were garlanded with flags and banners for the occasion. If Washington gazed back at the receding Jersey shore, he would have seen that his craft led a huge flotilla of boats, including one bearing the portly figure of Gen. Henry Knox. Some boats carried musicians and female vocalists on deck, who serenaded Washington across the waters. “The voices of the ladies were...superior to the flutes that played with the stroke of the oars in Cleopatra’s silken-corded barge,” was the imaginative verdict of the New York Packet. These wafted melodies, united with repeated cannon roar and thunderous acclaim from crowds onshore, again oppressed Washington with their implicit message of high expectations. As he confided to his diary, the intermingled sounds “filled my mind with sensations as painful (considering the reverse of this scene, which may be the case after all my labors to do good) as they are pleasing.” So as to guard himself against later disappointment, he didn’t seem to allow himself the smallest iota of pleasure.When the presidential barge landed at the foot of Wall Street, Governor Clinton, Mayor James Duane, James Madison and other luminaries welcomed him to the city. The officer of a special military escort stepped forward briskly and told Washington that he awaited his orders. Washington again labored to cool the celebratory mood, which burst forth at every turn. “As to the present arrangement,” he replied, “I shall proceed as is directed. But after this is over, I hope you will give yourself no further trouble, as the affection of my fellow-citizens is all the guard I want.” Nobody seemed to take the hint seriously.The streets were solidly thronged with well-wishers and it took Washington a half-hour to arrive at his new residence at 3 Cherry Street, tucked away in the northeast corner of the city, a block from the East River, near the present-day Brooklyn Bridge. One week earlier, the building’s owner, Samuel Osgood, had agreed to allow Washington to use it as the temporary presidential residence. From the descriptions of Washington’s demeanor en route to the house, he finally surrendered to the general mood of high spirits, especially when he viewed the legions of adoring women. As New Jersey Representative Elias Boudinot told his wife, Washington “frequently bowed to the multitude and took off his hat to the ladies at the windows, who waved their handkerchiefs and threw flowers before him and shed tears of joy and congratulation. The whole city was one scene of triumphal rejoicing.”Though the Constitution said nothing about an inaugural address, Washington, in an innovative spirit, contemplated such a speech as early as January 1789 and asked a “gentleman under his roof”—David Humphreys—to draft one. Washington had always been economical with words, but the collaboration with Humphreys produced a wordy document, 73 pages long, which survives only in tantalizing snippets. In this curious speech, Washington spent a ridiculous amount of time defending his decision to become president, as if he stood accused of some heinous crime. He denied that he had accepted the presidency to enrich himself, even though nobody had accused him of greed. “In the first place, if I have formerly served the community without a wish for pecuniary compensation, it can hardly be suspected that I am at present influenced by avaricious schemes.” Addressing a topical concern, he disavowed any desire to found a dynasty, citing his childless state. Closer in tone to future inaugural speeches was Washington’s ringing faith in the American people. He devised a perfect formulation of popular sovereignty, writing that the Constitution had brought forth “a government of the people: that is to say, a government in which all power is derived from, and at stated periods reverts to, them—and that, in its operation...is purely a government of laws made and executed by the fair substitutes of the people alone.”This ponderous speech never saw the light of day. Washington sent a copy to James Madison, who wisely vetoed it on two counts: that it was much too long and that its lengthy legislative proposals would be interpreted as executive meddling with the legislature. Instead, Madison helped Washington draft a far more compact speech that avoided the tortured introspection of its predecessor. A whirlwind of energy, Madison would seem omnipresent in the early days of Washington’s administration. Not only did he help draft the inaugural address, he also wrote the official response by Congress and then Washington’s response to Congress, completing the circle. This established Madison, despite his role in the House, as a pre-eminent adviser and confidant to the new president. Oddly enough, he wasn’t troubled that his advisory relationship to Washington might be construed as violating the separation of powers.Washington knew that everything he did at the swearing-in would establish a tone for the future. “As the first of everything in our situation will serve to establish a precedent,” he reminded Madison, “it is devoutly wished on my part that these precedents may be fixed on true principles.” He would shape indelibly the institution of the presidency. Although he had earned his reputation in battle, he made a critical decision not to wear a uniform at the inauguration or beyond, banishing fears of a military coup. Instead, he would stand there aglitter with patriotic symbols. To spur American manufactures, he would wear a double-breasted brown suit, made from broadcloth woven at the Woolen Manufactory of Hartford, Connecticut. The suit had gilt buttons with an eagle insignia on them; to round out his outfit, he would wear white hosiery, silver shoe buckles and yellow gloves. Washington already sensed that Americans would emulate their presidents. “I hope it will not be a great while before it will be unfashionable for a gentleman to appear in any other dress,” he told his friend the Marquis de Lafayette, referring to his American attire. “Indeed, we have already been too long subject to British prejudices.” To burnish his image further on Inauguration Day, Washington would powder his hair and wear a dress sword on his hip, sheathed in a steel scabbard.The inauguration took place at the building at Wall and Nassau streets that had long served as New York’s City Hall. It came richly laden with historical associations, having hosted John Peter Zenger’s trial in 1735, the Stamp Act Congress of 1765 and the Confederation Congress from 1785 to 1788. Starting in September 1788, the French engineer Pierre-Charles L’Enfant had remodeled it into Federal Hall, a suitable home for Congress. L’Enfant introduced a covered arcade at street level and a balcony surmounted by a triangular pediment on the second story. As the people’s chamber, the House of Representatives was accessible to the public, situated in a high-ceilinged octagonal room on the ground floor, while the Senate met in a second-floor room on the Wall Street side, buffering it from popular pressure. From this room Washington would emerge onto the balcony to take the oath of office. In many ways, the first inauguration was a hasty, slapdash affair. As with all theatrical spectacles, rushed preparations and frantic work on the new building continued until a few days before the event. Nervous anticipation spread through the city as to whether the 200 workmen would complete the project on time. Only a few days before the inauguration, an eagle was hoisted onto the pediment, completing the building. The final effect was stately: a white building with a blue and white cupola topped by a weather vane.A little after noon on April 30, 1789, following a morning filled with clanging church bells and prayers, a contingent of troops on horseback, accompanied by carriages loaded with legislators, stopped at Washington’s Cherry Street residence. Escorted by David Humphreys and aide Tobias Lear, the president-elect stepped into his appointed carriage, which was trailed by foreign dignitaries and throngs of joyous citizens. The procession wound slowly through the narrow Manhattan streets, emerging 200 yards from Federal Hall. After alighting from his carriage, Washington strode through a double line of soldiers to the building and mounted to the Senate chamber, where members of Congress awaited him expectantly. As he entered, Washington bowed to both houses of the legislature—his invariable mark of respect—then occupied an imposing chair up front. A profound hush settled on the room. Vice President John Adams rose for an official greeting, then informed Washington that the epochal moment had arrived. “Sir, the Senate and House of Representatives are ready to attend you to take the oath required by the Constitution.” “I am ready to proceed,” Washington replied.As he stepped through the door onto the balcony, a spontaneous roar surged from the multitude tightly squeezed into Wall and Broad streets and covering every roof in sight. This open-air ceremony would confirm the sovereignty of the citizens gathered below. Washington’s demeanor was stately, modest and deeply affecting: he clapped one hand to his heart and bowed several times to the crowd. Surveying the serried ranks of people, one observer said they were jammed so closely together “that it seemed one might literally walk on the heads of the people.” Thanks to his simple dignity, integrity and unrivaled sacrifices for his country, Washington’s conquest of the people was complete. A member of the crowd, the Count de Moustier, the French minister, noted the solemn trust between Washington and the citizens who stood packed below him with uplifted faces. As he reported to his government, never had a “sovereign reigned more completely in the hearts of his subjects than did Washington in those of his fellow citizens...he has the soul, look and figure of a hero united in him.” One young woman in the crowd echoed this when she remarked, “I never saw a human being that looked so great and noble as he does.” Only Congressman Fisher Ames of Massachusetts noted that “time has made havoc” upon Washington’s face, which already looked haggard and careworn.The sole constitutional requirement for the swearing-in was that the president take the oath of office. That morning, a Congressional committee decided to add solemnity by having Washington place his hand on a Bible during the oath, leading to a frantic, last-minute scramble to locate one. A Masonic lodge came to the rescue by providing a thick Bible, bound in deep brown leather and set on a crimson velvet cushion. By the time Washington appeared on the portico, the Bible rested on a table draped in red.The crowd grew silent as New York Chancellor Robert R. Livingston administered the oath to Washington, who was visibly moved. As the president finished the oath, he bent forward, seized the Bible and brought it to his lips. Washington felt this moment from the bottom of his soul: one observer noted the “devout fervency” with which he “repeated the oath and the reverential manner in which he bowed down and kissed” the Bible. Legend has it that he added, “So help me God,” though this line was first reported 65 years later. Whether or not Washington actually said it, very few people would have heard him anyway, since his voice was soft and breathy. For the crowd below, the oath of office was enacted as a kind of dumb show. Livingston had to lift his voice and inform the crowd, “It is done.” He then intoned: “Long live George Washington, president of the United States.” The spectators responded with huzzahs and chants of “God bless our Washington! Long live our beloved president!” They celebrated in the only way they knew, as if greeting a new monarch with the customary cry of “Long live the king!”When the balcony ceremony was concluded, Washington returned to the Senate chamber to deliver his inaugural address. In an important piece of symbolism, Congress rose as he entered, then sat down after Washington bowed in response. In England, the House of Commons stood during the king’s speeches; the seated Congress immediately established a sturdy equality between the legislative and executive branches.As Washington began his speech, he seemed flustered and thrust his left hand in his pocket while turning the pages with a trembling right hand. His weak voice was barely audible in the room. Fisher Ames evoked him thus: “His aspect grave, almost to sadness; his modesty, actually shaking; his voice deep, a little tremulous, and so low as to call for close attention.” Those present attributed Washington’s low voice and fumbling hands to anxiety. “This great man was agitated and embarrassed more than ever he was by the leveled cannon or pointed musket,” said Pennsylvania Senator William Maclay in sniggering tones. “He trembled and several times could scarce make out to read, though it must be supposed he had often read it before.” Washington’s agitation might have arisen from an undiagnosed neurological disorder or might simply have been a bad case of nerves. The new president had long been famous for his physical grace, but the sole gesture he used for emphasis in his speech seemed clumsy—“a flourish with his right hand,” said Maclay, “which left rather an ungainly impression.” For the next few years, Maclay would be a close, unsparing observer of the new president’s nervous quirks and tics.In the first line of his inaugural address, Washington expressed anxiety about his fitness for the presidency, saying that “no event could have filled me with greater anxieties” than the news brought to him by Charles Thomson. He had grown despondent, he said candidly, as he considered his own “inferior endowments from nature” and his lack of practice in civil government. He drew comfort, however, from the fact that the “Almighty Being” had overseen America’s birth. “No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the invisible hand, which conducts the affairs of men, more than the people of the United States.” Perhaps referring obliquely to the fact that he suddenly seemed older, he called Mount Vernon “a retreat which was rendered every day more necessary, as well as more dear to me, by the addition of habit to inclination and of frequent interruptions in my health to the gradual waste committed on it by time.” In the earlier inaugural address drafted with David Humphreys, Washington had included a disclaimer about his health, telling how he had “prematurely grown old in the service of my country.”Setting the pattern for future inaugural speeches, Washington didn’t delve into policy matters, but trumpeted the big themes that would govern his administration, the foremost being the triumph of national unity over “local prejudices or attachments” that might subvert the country or even tear it apart. National policy needed to be rooted in private morality, which relied on the “eternal rules of order and right” ordained by heaven itself. On the other hand, Washington refrained from endorsing any particular form of religion. Knowing how much was riding on this attempt at republican government, he said that “the sacred fire of liberty, and the destiny of the republican model of government, are justly considered as deeply, perhaps as finally staked, on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people.“After this speech, Washington led a broad procession of delegates up Broadway, along streets lined by armed militia, to an Episcopal prayer service at St. Paul’s Chapel, where he was given his own canopied pew. After these devotions ended, Washington had his first chance to relax until the evening festivities. That night Lower Manhattan was converted into a shimmering fairyland of lights. From the residences of Chancellor Livingston and General Knox, Washington observed the fireworks at Bowling Green, a pyrotechnic display that flashed lights in the sky for two hours. Washington’s image was displayed in transparencies hung in many windows, throwing glowing images into the night. This sort of celebration, ironically, would have been familiar to Washington from the days when new royal governors arrived in Williamsburg and were greeted by bonfires, fireworks and illuminations in every window.Excerpted from Washington: A Life. Copyright © Ron Chernow. With the permission of the publisher, The Penguin Press, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.When it came to the presidency, George Washington harbored both desire and doubt. In this illustartion, Charles Thomson, the secretary of Congress, formally notifies him that he has been elected. (Granger Collection, New York)Read more: George Washington: The Reluctant President10 Facts about Washington's ElectionOn April 30, 1789, George Washington was inaugurated as the first president. The path to the presidency, and the task of leading a new nation, was uncharted territory for which there was no precedent.1. As the first, Washington had to create the American presidency from scratchThe famous Lansdowne portrait of President Washington by Gilbert Stuart (Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association)George Washington, as the first president, was well aware of the great responsibility of defining the American presidency. "I walk on untrodden ground," was a frequent comment he made in the days leading up to his first inauguration.Washington believed that the precedents he set must make the presidency powerful enough to function effectively in the national government, but at the same time these practices could not show any tendency toward monarchy or dictatorship.In addition to defining the actual powers of the office, Washington also needed to show the new nation how the leader of a democracy should behave socially. There was no precedent for this office in a world full of kings, leaving Washington the monumental task of figuring out how to act like a president.5 CHALLENGES AS FIRST PRESIDENT2. Washington's presidential campaign cost zero dollars-- because he did absolutely no public campaigningPresidential candidates of the 21st century spend millions of dollars winning the endorsements of their parties and mounting nationwide campaigns. But Washington himself did absolutely no public campaigning, and even cast doubt on whether he would take the job if elected. The retired general said that he had "no wish which aspires beyond the humble and happy lot of living and dying a private citizen" at his Mount Vernon farm.WASHINGTON'S IMPERFECT ELECTION3. Washington did not really want to be presidentAfter winning the Revolutionary War and helping set up the new government for his country at the Constitutional Convention, George Washington's thoughts turned away from battlefields and assembly halls to a much more modest arena-- his home at his Mount Vernon estate -- and the opportunity of "living and dying a private citizen on my own farm."Yet, his dreams of a tranquil retirement were at odds with his peers and the American people at large. Even before the Constitution was ratified, rumors spread declaring George Washington would likely elected first President of the United States (much to the dismay of Washington himself).GEORGE WASHINGTON'S REASONS FOR WANTING TO DECLINE THE PRESIDENCY1. Old age2. Washington's "encreasing fondness for agricultural amusements"3. "My growing love of retirement"4. Belief that the Anti-Federalists may oppose his selection5. After having already retired in 1783, Washington feared he would be looked upon as inconsistent, rash, and ambitious if he returned to office6. Belief that "some other person...could execute all the duties full as satisfactorily as myself."On the other hand, Washington could not escape his conscience. In a formal letter of acceptance, Washington succinctly assented to what he had agonized over for more than a year:Having concluded to obey the important and flattering call of my Country ....WASHINGTON'S UNRETIREMENTWashington's inaugural suit can be seen on display in the Donald W. Reynolds Museum at Mount Vernon4. Washington is the only president to have been unanimously elected by the Electoral CollegeIn both the election of 1789 and 1792 Washington received all votes from the Electoral College. During the first election, Washington won the electors of all ten eligible states. Three states, however, did not contribute to the vote total. Both North Carolina and Rhode Island were ineligible; neither had ratified the Constitution yet. In addition, New York was unable to participate in the election, as the legislature had not passed a bill in time to appoint its eight electors. In 1792, Washington received all 132 electoral votes, winning each of the fifteen states.5. Washington was the only president inaugurated in two citiesHowever, neither of those cities was Washington, D.C., as the seat of government did not move there until 1800. Washington’s first inauguration occurred in New York City on the portico of Federal Hall in Lower Manhattan on April 30, 1789. The second inauguration was in Philadelphia, held in the Senate Chamber of Congress Hall on March 4, 1793.Washington’s First Inaugural Address | Second Inaugural Address6. First Lady Martha Washington had her own separate inaugural celebration which lasted 11 days (3 more than her husband's)Martha Washington is the first and only woman to grace the primary portrait of U.S. paper currency.One month after President Washington left Mount Vernon, Martha Washington set out on her own triumphant trip to the seat of the new government in New York. On May 16 1789, Mrs. Washington and her grandchildren, Nelly and Washy, embarked on an 11-day journey through Baltimore, Philadelphia, and more.Her entourage attracted considerable attention and was greeted by crowded streets filled with admirers, ringing church bells, fireworks, and gun salutes.7. The streets were so filled with people at Washington's inauguration in New York that the newly elected president had to walk homePresident Washington's inauguration was celebrated with illuminations and fireworks. Citizens of the new nation showed up in droves. One exhilarated eyewitness recalled that " ... my sensibility was wound to such a pitch that I could do no more than wave my hat with the rest, without the power of joining in the requested acclamations which rent the air!" Another described the streets as "so dense that it seemed as if one might literally walk on the heads of people".INAUGURATION IN NEW YORKMiniature portrait of President Washington by John Ramage, c.1789 (MVLA)8. The first artist to do a life portrait of President Washington was a former loyalistAlthough John Ramage (circa 1748-1802) is well-known among art historians and collectors of portrait miniatures, his name is not immediately associated with Washington portraiture. Yet, Ramage painted George Washington from the life and was the first artist to whom he sat as President of the United States.Ramage was in Boston, Massachussetts when the Revolutionary War broke out. There he enlisted in a unit formed by Irish Loyalists to fight the American colonials and General Washington’s Continental Army. After the war, he became firmly established in New York’s small artistic community.Considered the best artist in the city, he was the obvious choice for Washington's first presidential portrait. The sitting took place on October 3, 1789, probably in the president's official residence on Cherry Street in New York.RAMAGE'S MINIATURE PORTRAITS9. The initial draft of the first inaugural address was over seventy pages longJames Madison, who later called the rambling first draft a "strange production", prepared a drastically more concise version. Madison would also go on to serve as the fourth president of the United States.JAMES MADISONAn early draft of over seventy pages had been prepared by Washington's aide David Humphreys and included extensive recommendations to Congress on such topics as internal improvements, military affairs, international treaties, and the expansion of national borders. After a private meeting at Mount Vernon, Madison prepared a drastically more concise address which left more open to Congress's discretion.READ THE FIRST INAUGURAL ADDRESS10. Washington's Acts of Congress, a rare volume which includes the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and a record of acts passed by the first Congress, returned to the Mount Vernon collection in 2012George Washington's copy of the Acts passed at a Congress of the United States of America (New-York, 1789) contains key founding documents establishing the Union: the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and a record of acts passed by the first Congress.The most signNow features of this book are Washington’s personal notes, penciled in the margins. All of his notes in this volume appear alongside the text of the Constitution, where he drew neat brackets to highlight passages of particular interest.Washington's notations highlighting powers of the presidency (Mount Vernon Ladies' Association)Washington brought the book home to Mount Vernon after retiring from the presidency in March 1797. Since leaving the hands of the Washington family in 1876, it has been treasured and preserved by several noted private collectors. The book now resides within The Fred W. Smith National Library for the Study of George Washington.THE ACTS OF CONGRESSGeorge Washington: Life Before the Presidency | Miller CenterTompkins Harrison Matteson George Washington At Valley ForgeJohn Washington, George's great-grandfather, signNowed the New World in 1657, settling in Virginia. Little definitive information exists on George's ancestors before his father, but what is known is that by the time George was born to Augustine and Mary Washington on February 22, 1732, the family was part of the lower echelon of Virginia's ruling class. He was the eldest child of Augustine's second marriage; there were two sons from the first. Farming and land speculation had brought the family moderate prosperity. However, when George was eleven years old, his family was dealt a terrible setback. Augustine became mortally ill after surveying his lands during a long ride in bad weather—ironically, the same circumstances killed George almost seven decades later.His mother, Mary, a tough and driven woman, fought to hold home and hearth together. She hoped to send George to school in England, but these plans were aborted and the boy never received more than the equivalent of an elementary school education. Although George was shy and not highly literate, he was a large, strong, and handsome child. His half brother Lawrence, fourteen years George's senior, looked out for him. Lawrence counseled the boy about his future and introduced him to Lord Fairfax, head of one of the most powerful families in Virginia.Despite George's meager education, he had three great strengths: his mother's ambitious drive, a shy charm, and a gift for mathematics. Lord Fairfax discerned all three traits and invited the sixteen-year-old to join a team of men surveying Fairfax lands in the Shenandoah Valley region of the Virginia colony. It was the young man's first real trip away from home, and he proved his worth on the wilderness journey, helping the surveyors while learning their trade. Surveying offered George decent wages, travel opportunities, and time away from his strict and demanding mother. By the time he was seventeen, he went into the surveying business on his own.However, the next year, tragedy visited the Washington family once again: George's beloved half brother and mentor, Lawrence, contracted an aggressive strain of tuberculosis. George accompanied Lawrence to the island of Barbados in the West Indies in the desperate hope that the tropical climate would help his brother. Unfortunately, it did not, and George returned to Virginia alone, concluding the one trip of his life outside America.Lawrence had commanded a local militia in the area near the Washington family home. Soon after returning to Virginia, George, barely out of his teens, lobbied the colonial government for the same post and was awarded it. The young man possessed no military training whatsoever, and it soon showed in disastrous fashion.20 Facts About George WashingtonFolly on the OhioEngland and France, vying for control of the American continent north of Mexico, were at odds over the Ohio River Valley. The French were entering the region from Canada and making alliances with Native Americans, and the English-based government in Virginia was determined to stop these incursions. Serving as a British military envoy, Washington led a group of volunteers to the remote area, gathered intelligence on enemy troop strengths, and delivered a message ordering the French to leave the region. They refused, and when Washington returned home, he proposed that a fort be built on the Ohio River in order to stop further French expansion into the area. In the spring of 1754, he put together a poorly trained and equipped force of 150 men and set out to reinforce troops building this stockade, which he called Fort Necessity. On the way, he encountered a small French force and promptly attacked it, killing ten of the French—an unknown young militiaman from Virginia had fired the first shots of the French and Indian War.Because one of the men killed was a French envoy delivering a message to the British, Washington had taken part in the killing of an ambassador, a serious violation of international protocol. Repercussions of this rashness signNowed all the way to Westminster Palace and Versailles. Native Americans in the region, sensing British-American ineptitude, sided with the French. The joint Native American-French force attacked the small, ill-placed Fort Necessity and overwhelmed Washington and his men. They were forced to leave the area after signing a surrender document. The document was in French, and in it, Washington, who did not read French, supposedly admitted to bsignNowes of military protocol, thus handing the French a great propaganda victory when the text of the document was released in Europe. Not long afterward, Washington was passed over for promotion, and he resigned from the army, bitter that the British had not defended his honor.England decided that the best way to drive the French from the Ohio River Valley was to send in regular troops from the Royal Army. Their commander, General Edward Braddock, needed an aide with experience in the conflict and offered the post to Washington. Eager to regain favor with the English army, Washington accepted. In July of 1755, the British force approached the French stronghold at Fort Duquesne. Washington had warned Braddock that the French and Indian troops fought very differently than the open-field, formalized armies of Europe, but he was ignored. A few days later, the British were attacked by a large Native American force and completely routed. Washington fought bravely despite having two horses shot from under him. Braddock was killed, his terrified British troops fled into the forest, and his young aide barely escaped with his life.Militia Command, Marriage, and Life as a Gentleman FarmerLondon blamed the colonials for the fiasco. The colonials, refusing to be England's scapegoat, reacted by elevating Washington as a hero. To convey their approval of his leadership and abilities, the colonials gave him command of all Virginian forces and charged him mainly with defending the colony's western frontier from Native American attacks. Washington was only twenty-two years old. This sudden turn of events provided him with a superb apprenticeship for the supreme command that would come two decades later: Washington learned how to raise a force, train it, lead it into battle, and keep it from deserting. But the young commander was always short of recruits and money, and appeals to the English military authorities did little good. Washington became increasingly annoyed with their condescension and their rebuffs of his attempts to win a regular army commission. After commanding a regiment that finally captured Fort Duquesne in 1758, he resigned from the military and went home to Mount Vernon, the farm he had inherited from Lawrence. A year later, Washington married a rich young widow named Martha Custis. He won a seat in the lower Virginia legislature and settled into the life of a Virginia planter. His early married years were happy ones. Washington worked hard and learned everything he could about farming, but his new occupation gave him another reason to resent the mother country. He found that he was largely at the mercy of a trade system that heavily favored British merchants buying tobacco, his major crop. Consequently, after a few years, he owed a signNow debt. By 1766, he abandoned tobacco farming and diversified Mount Vernon into crops that could be sold more easily in America. He also dabbled in light industry such as weaving and fishing. All of these ventures were aimed at making his plantation more self-sufficient, thus minimizing his business ties to England. Several hundred slaves labored at Mount Vernon. As Washington turned to crops that were less labor intensive than tobacco, he had more help than he needed. However, although he could pursue greater profits by minimizing labor expenses, he almost never sold or moved a slave to another property unless the slave wanted to leave. As he approached middle age, Washington expressed increasing qualms about the practice of slavery.The Seeds of RevolutionBy the mid-1760s, colonial resentment of British rule was widespread. To rep
What are some cool things I can do to make my linkedin profile standout?That’s a great question - and one I am constantly answering for my LinkedIn coaching students.It really depends on what your intention for using LinkedIn is (lead generation? finding a job? recruiting a new staff member?, etc), but broadly if you want your profile to stand out you should:1. Make your profile publicGo to your Public Profile Settings and you’ll see this on the right:Choose “Make my public profile visible to everyone. Before saving, go to Step 2…2. Create your own linkStaying on the same page as above, secure a custom URL for your profile — ideally with a short slug like “/firstnamelastname”. This will be especially helpful for listing your LinkedIn on business cards and your resume.Scroll down and Save.3. Add or update your LinkedIn profile picture using free toolsHaving a picture makes you seven times more likely to be found on LinkedIn, and will get you 40% more InMail responses.Here are some fast tricks:Try uploading your photo to PhotoFeeler to see what your LinkedIn photo scores compared to what you’ve been thinking all along.Take your picture against a white background and then use a tool like Background Burner to set a new background color.Get yourself the “free forever” version of Canva to edit the picture you plan to use so it fits the right dimensions.4. Set a LinkedIn Profile background photoWhile you’re on Canva, set a new canvas to the size of 1400 x 425 pixels.Ideas for background photos:Something that conveys what you accomplish in your roleCompany branding (i.e. an office shot with a logo or a graphic-designer-approved pic)A scenic view of the city you’re located inHere are some great examples from our sales team here at Yesware:5. Set your current location and industry (30 seconds)Just like how a picture turns you into person to your network and search engines, setting a specific location does the same.Looking to connect with a prospect? If you’re in the same city as them, adding your location puts the similarity principle on your side.Aiming for a new job? Recruiters use an advanced LinkedIn profile search that lets them filter by location for the position they’re looking to fill. Adding your city makes you stand out 23 times more in search results.Action: Quickly update your location and industry by clicking the pencil icon to edit your profile.6. Optimize your headlineYour headline doesn’t have to be your current job title. In fact, if you’re trying to compel action from your profile visitors, it shouldn’t be.So, if you’re in sales or actively seeking a new opportunity, make it actionable.How to do this: Fill in the black: “[Action]ing to/for [outcome]”To make sure you stay within the 120 character limit, use this character count tool.Here’s an example from our sales team to illustrate this point:(Note: Alex’s background photo is a great illustration of what he accomplishes in his role — helping sales teams sell smarter right from their inboxes.)7. Add a LinkedIn profile summary (2 minutes)This is your opportunity to tell the LinkedIn world what you stand for and to ask for action. As you write your own summary, keep in mind you have a 2000 character limit.If you’re targeting recruiters or laying out a general introduction, try a 3 x 3 summary:Keep in mind: with seven million people on LinkedIn switching jobs in a year, you’ll need to differentiate yourself. Check out this helpful resource from LinkedIn if you want to add media to your summary.If you’re in sales, here’s a good LinkedIn summary example to model after, from Paul Hlatky on our team:8. Fill out your experienceOkay, I know you’ve been avoiding this one. And you’re not alone — 46% of professionals don’t feel confident describing their work accomplishments, according to a LinkedIn study.But incomplete profiles are a turnoff for recruiters. So don’t be shy in naming your successes, and make them quantifiable where you can (i.e. “wrote email templates that increased team reply rates by 35%”).Pro tip: Keep your formatting consistent for each job description.If you use bullets, do they start with the same verb tense for all past positions?Are you consistent with using either paragraph form or bullets for each description?Bonus: if you’re looking for a new job, use job descriptions to your advantage; they can be your jumping off point for edits. Paste a job description into tagcrowd.com to find out the important words you should be including in your own experience and summary sections.9. Add five professional skills to your LinkedIn profile (20 seconds)LinkedIn members with 5 or more skills listed are 33x more likely to get messaged by recruiters and receive 17x more profile views. It’s that simple — if you haven’t added any yet, you need to.10. Get yourself 50 connections (1 minute)If you’re under this cap, do some quick work to get yourself to Complete Profile status.Action 1: Go to your company’s LinkedIn page, and make sure you’re connected with all current employees.You can do this to connect with coworkers from your previous job, too, if you never did it before.Action 2: Go through People You May Know and connect with whoever you’d say hello to if you saw them on the street.7 Edits to Get Your LinkedIn Profile to All-Star StrengthHave you ever noticed that when you visit your profile on LinkedIn, there’s this “Profile Strength” score (often times calling out mediocrity)?Trying to signNow the far right can feel like:So close and yet, always so far.Well here’s some good news: the tips and tricks above will win you that All-Star status (where you’re 27x more likely to be found by recruiters, according to LinkedIn).That said, if you’re feeling ambitious, here are seven other suggested updates to make to your profile to show what you’ve accomplished and what you’re interested in.Publications — have you ever written something public-facing for your company or on your own?Certifications — do you hold any industry or role-related certifications?Groups — who are you looking to connect with? Join the groups they’re in.Following — what do you stand for? Think of five people and/or companies who influence you, and follow them (whether they’re in your industry, career track, have the same ambitions, etc.)Language — do you speak any second languages? (I had to skip this one because 7 years of Latin doesn’t really count when it comes to conversational languages #bringbackLatin)Volunteer Experience — here’s what it looks like and why you should add it:If you’re not convinced yet — 41% of LinkedIn members consider volunteer experience to be as valuable as work experience. If you have experience, include it.Recommendations — ask one person for a recommendation, if you haven’t yet. How? Visit their profile, Click the “More” button and choose “Request a Recommendation.”Hope this helps you get started in improving your Linkedin profile and getting it to stand out!