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How is the weight of an aircraft carrier balanced during aircraft takeoff and landing?The pilots and crew rely on three key elements to launch and land aircraft safely.First, four catapults are specially developed to launch planes at high speeds.Second, a lighting system known as the Fresnel lens, or the"meatball" system, lets a pilot know if the plane has the correct altitude and position when approaching to land.Third, four arresting cables are in place to bring the plane to rest in less than 320 feet.LandingThe Fresnel lens optical landing system provides guidance for correctly landing on an aircraft carrier.The lens is located on the side of the runway so that it can be seen by the pilots throughout the entire landing process.The Fresnel lens optical landing system provides guidance for correctly landing on an aircraft carrier.The lens is located on the side of the runway so that it can be seen by the pilots throughout the entire landing process.The optical landing system consists of a horizontal bar of green lights and a vertical bar ofred lights on both sides of the "meatball".The"meatball" is the centerpiece that consists of five amber colored lenses. Certain lenses will light up one at a time depending on the angle the plane is in relation to the "meatball."This causes the center light to appear to be moving upand down in relation to the horizontal green bars on the sides.In order to safely land, the pilot triesto keep the center amber lens horizontal with the green bar throughout process.If the pilot gets too low, the amber light will turn red indicating that the aircraft is dangerously low and risks hitting the back end of the aircraft carrier.The redlights around the green horizontal bars will be flashing if the carrier is not able to receive the aircraft, and so the jet must keep circling or find another place to land.Note: Aircraft carrier remains balaced during take off and landing , It’s same way like a Bird is landing on elephant and elephant remains balanced.Hope this helps!
How is the "moment" of and item of equipment obtained when computing aircraft weight and balance?The moment of a given item of equipment is the product of the item’s weight and its “arm”, where the arm is the distance between the item in question and a predetermined datum point. That datum point is established by the aircraft type certificate holder, and will be either an easily recognizable part of the aircraft structure such as the engine firewall or the wing leading edge, or it may be a point in space located a certain distance from (usually forward of) such a structural feature. The actual position can be virtually anywhere, provided the same point is used for all calculations.The benefit of using a datum point outside the aircraft structure is that it simplifies calculations by ensuring that all items subject to calculations will have the same arithmetical sign (usually always plus if the datum is forward). That contrasts with the situation if the datum is located within the aircraft structure, in which case items located behind the datum have a plus sign, while those located ahead of the datum will have a minus sign.The sum of the moments of the individual components of the aircraft is equal to the moment of the complete aircraft, so when installing or removing a component, it is only necessary to add or subtract the moment of that component to or from the moment of the aircraft, then divide the new moment by the new weight to find the new arm of the complete aircraft, which be the new aircraft center of gravity.
Who can issue an aircraft weight and a balance report?All aircraft come from the factory with a basic empty weight and balance (W&B) calculation. It’s a document that is part of the aircraft’s operating information.Before each flight there is supposed to be a weight and balance calculated for the flight. This calculation involves using the aircraft’s basic empty W&B and then adding fuel, baggage, cargo, and passengers to the aircraft’s empty weight to make certain that the aircraft isn’t overweight.In addition, the aircraft’s “balance” is calculated using the location of the various passengers, baggage, etc. and how much fuel weight affects the balance. Balance affects aircraft handling and it must be within a certain “envelope” in order to be safe.On airliners this is calculated for the pilot by the airline’s operations department and uses standard estimate weights for passengers, baggage, and cargo. In general aviation aircraft calculating W&B is the pilot’s responsibility and should be precise.
How can I get a job as a flight dispatcher (aircraft weight and balance) in the US?You need to obtain a dispatch certificate. This involves 200 hours of training and passing an FAA written and practical test.
How would you determine the empty weight and empty weight c.g. of an aircraft if all the weight and balance records are missing?Many times older aircraft are bought and sold with incomplete records. It is wise to reconstruct the records before flying the airplane to make sure it is safe. Knowing the current weight and balance, not necessarily its history, is essential for safe flight.Weight and balance records are really not that important as they only serve as a record of the history. I have been an aircraft owner for many decades. Every year the aircraft must go through a thorough inspection in order to demonstrate airworthiness. There are points on the aircraft where it can be weighed to determine the current weight and balance figures for the aircraft under inspection. The FAA licensed AI will perform this weight analysis and enter the data in the airframe log books.Absent this inspection, one cannot legally fly the airplane. Also, between annual inspections, any work done on the airplane must include a re-weighing and logbook update to be returned to service. I updated the upholstery and paint on my airplane and this was a requirement before I could fly.The PIC, pilot in command, is responsible to adjust the loading of the airplane prior to takeoff to make sure the airplane remains balanced within the design limits of the aircraft approved by FAA when the plane is approved for manufacturing and distribution.
How is the arm of an item of equipment obtained when computing aircraft weight and balance?There’s some reference point, usually called the datum. Exactly where it’s located is somewhat arbitrary. So long as you measure all the masses from that same reference point (distance times mass), you’ll get the same CG for the aircraft.You could put the reference point at the nose, at the tail, or in the middle (in the middle you’ll end up with both positive and negative moments to add together). It doesn’t even have to be *on* the aircraft (I’ve seen several aircraft where the zero datum was slightly in front of the nose of the aircraft).Often positions in the fuselage are measured from that point as well (the frame at station 100, for example, would be 100 inches from the datum, and the lever arm for something you bolted to that frame would be 100 inches as well).
How are passengers arranged in an aircraft, considering their varied weights and its relationship to the balance and safety of the aircraft?Short answer: on airliners, human weight distribution isn’t a concern. Luggage can be if mismanaged particularly seriously. On smaller planes, it’s calculated by the pilots.Long answer:These sorts of jobs are performed by flight dispatchers, or airline dispatchers. Dispatchers are responsible for determining the amount of fuel a given flight will carry, how it will be distributed between the tanks on the aircraft, how cargo will be distributed in the hold (this can signNowly affect balance and fuel efficiency), and various other efficiency and safety related duties. Along with the pilots and the airline's navigation data and meteorological offices, they also help to determine the route of each flight according to expected traffic and weather conditions. A good dispatcher can save their airline hundreds of thousands of dollars a year by optimizing fuel efficiency and shaving off travel time. Passenger weight is not as much of a concern in modern airliners because the weights tend to average out. After all, they charge you by the mile and not by the pound, right?On very small commuter or bush aircraft (anything with 2 to 10 seats and propellers) it's an entirely different story. Passengers with different enough weights can indeed unbalance the plane, making it harder and less safe to fly. In these cases, since there's no dispatcher, the pilot has total control and will either eyeball it (“You! Sit over there!”) or on especially small planes ask for weights in advance and do the math herself when she does the rest of the flight planning.
In the simplest language possible, how can I understand the load control and weight &balance of an aircraft for non operational guys?"Weight and balance" calculations -- primarily associated with the loading and fueling of aircraft -- are critical because you can lose control if your load exceeds forward or aft limits.The "flight control surfaces" on an aircraft (elevators, ailerons, rudder) are tiny compared to the size of the aircraft as a whole. A properly loaded aircraft is "balanced" such that it wants to fly, and the small flight controls can make the big airplane do what you want it to do (nose up/down, roll left/right, etc.) and then stop that movement when you want it to stop.Secondarily, the "weight" aspect of weight and balance is important because, even if it's in the right place, it's often possible to load a plane beyond its ability to fly.From Great Land of Alaska:Lloyd and Bruce fly in to the Alaskan interior to go moose hunting. They have a good hunt, and both manage to get a large moose. When the plane returns to pick them up, the pilot looks at the animals and says, "This little plane won't lift all of us, the equipment, and both of these animals--you'll have to leave one. We'd never make it over the trees on the take-off.""That's baloney", says Bruce."Yeah," Lloyd agrees, "you're just chicken. We came out here last year and got two moose and that pilot had some guts; he wasn't afraid to take off.""Yeah," said Bruce, "and his plane wasn't any bigger than yours!"The pilot got angry, and said, "Well, if he did it, then I can do it, I can fly as well as anybody!" They loaded up, taxied at full throttle, and the plane almost made it, but didn't have the lift to clear the trees at the end of the lake. It clipped the top, then flipped, then broke up, scattering the baggage, animal carcasses, and passengers all through the brush.Still alive, but shaken and dazed, the pilot sat up, shook his head to clear it, and said "Where are we?"Bruce rolled out from being thrown in a bush, looked around, and said, "I'd say, about a hundred yards further than last year."
How do you do weight and balance for the fuel tanks in swept wing aircraft? Do you have one long tank with a variable CG or multiple tanks, and if the latter, do you always empty the outer tanks first?Each fuel tank on an airplane has a center of gravity. That doesn’t change unless it is on a swing wing or other moving device. Fuel weight is handled the same no matter what fuel tank is considered or where it is located. That is — the CG for the tank becomes the location of the fuel for that calculation.The aircraft CG often changes when fuel is used from one of multiple tanks. If the tanks are located at the same distance from the nose (or other reference point) on the plane then the CG never changes for pitch purposes but could change for roll purposes. That is generally ignored for small planes. The designer of the aircraft should designate any nonstandard method of fuel usage if that is needed to keep the CG in the required range. For low wing planes it is common practice to use first one side tank for a half hour or hour and then switch to the other. High wing planes generally use fuel from both wing tanks simultaneously and don’t require much from the pilot to maintain balance.
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People also ask blank weight and balance charts
How do you weight and balance an aircraft?Add all the moments to find the total moment. Divide the total moment by the gross weight to find the center of gravity. Locate the total weight and center of gravity on the center of gravity limits chart in your aircraft's POH to determine if the airplane is within allowable limits.
Is there a weight restriction to fly?There is no set weight limit for passengers on commercial flights in the U.S., but some airlines, most notably Southwest, require customers who cannot fit in one seat to book a second. ... Call the airline you wish to fly and ask about passenger size regulations.
Why is a flight weight restricted?When air gets hotter, it also gets less dense. And when an airplane wing moves through less dense air, it produces less lift at a given speed. ... Since fuel is somewhat non-negotiable, the flight's payload of passengers and cargo must be reduced, and the airplane is said to be weight restricted.
Why is aircraft weight and balance important?The Balance point (Centre of Gravity - CG) is very important during flight because of its effect on the stability and performance of the aircraft. ... The structural strength of the aircraft also limits the maximum weight the aircraft can safely carry.
How is airplane weight calculated?To find the center of gravity, we divide the total moment by the total mass: 193,193 / 2,055 = 94.01 inches behind the datum plane. In larger aircraft, weight and balance is often expressed as a percentage of mean aerodynamic chord, or MAC. For example, assume the leading edge of the MAC is 62 inches aft of the datum.