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and it also it's time for us to get going welcome everybody my name is rachel bloom with the csu alumni association we are super excited that you're here today to join us for a really fun educational webinar we know these are challenging times we hope that this webinar brings you some fun and education to your lovely tuesday um i want to thank everyone who's participating today we had over 50 people register for this webinar which we are so excited about if you haven't done so already please feel free to add to the chat click all panelists and attendees and put where you're tuning in from we always love to know where you're watching and we're so glad we have rams all over the nation tuning in today for this awesome presentation many of our attendees are csu alumni association members so thank you so much for your membership um miranda if you want to click to the next slide we have our 2021 calendars they will be coming to your inbox very soon if you are a member and if you're not a member already you can sign up and get a amazing exclusive member calendar to your inbox not to your inbox to your mailbox um very soon so feel free to sign up we'd love to have you join as a csu alumni association member as a reminder you are on a webinar we cannot see your faces or hear you if you're eating lunch or drinking wine at noon we can't tell but miranda does have time planned at the end of this presentation to take on some of your questions and also my colleague dakota is here helping out today she'll be adding some different information in the chat box for you all uh so please feel free to check out any of those links we will also send out a post event email that'll have miranda slides as well as our youtube link this presentation and any other um helpful information that may come up in this presentation as well so you're not here to hear from me you're here to hear here to hear that sounds really fun i'd like to introduce you to our guest speaker miranda she is the csu viticulture extension specialist specialist located in grand junction colorado she serves grape growers statewide by providing educational opportunities full of improving colorado grape and wine quality prior to serving in this position she studied at oregon state university where she received her master's in horticulture and studied pruning strategies in pinot noir grapevines which that just sounds amazing so miranda i'm gonna go ahead and take let you take it away thank you so much for being here today awesome thank you rachel it's been such a pleasure to get to know you just over the past few days as we've been throwing this together so thank you for the invitation to present i was telling rachel that i love these types of events because my daily routine usually involves doing more scientific based talks and i love the opportunity to just talk about colorado wine and how i think it's such a blossoming industry here in colorado and i think it's something that everyone should know about whether you live in the state or outside of the state so it's my pleasure to be here this afternoon and like rachel said i'd be happy to take as many questions as you have at the end of the presentation all right so we'll go ahead and get started here first off i was going to talk about a few times when the colorado wine industry has popped up in the news and then we'll talk about the history of grape growing here in our state and where exactly those grapes are being grown one of my favorite things to talk about is what makes colorado unique because it's not often that colorado is the first thing that pops into your mind when you're thinking of wine but there are some really unique aspects of the geology and climate in our area that make the wine that we make here in colorado super unique we also have a lot of really fascinating research going on in the topic of viticulture which means grape growing and then i'll talk about some of the limits we have to growing grapes here in colorado another aspect of what makes it unique here and then i'll talk about a few wineries that i wanted to highlight and then there'll be lots of ways that you can get involved but first off i wanted to do a few poll questions there'll be three of them and i think rachel will get those started for us so i think you can choose the answer for question number one and then hit submit and then will the next one pop up or it will be a few moments it'll be a few moments we did them separately so you can use them throughout your presentation so they'll be just a separate one coming up in just a minute once we do this one okay so the first one if you could please select which year you think was the first recorded wine production in colorado and then these questions will be answered over the course of the presentation and you'll also be able to see what other folks thought the answer was we'll give everyone just about 10 more seconds looks like almost all of you have put in your vote we've got a resounding answer coming in here but if you want to stand alone no one has voted for 1770 yet so you could be the only one all right we'll give you just one more second if you want to vote do it now all right i'm ending the polling and here comes your next question maybe if polling will work maybe not well we have more than one question but it doesn't seem to want me to share more than one poll so please hold that's okay what would it help if we did it what people thought the answer was for that first one sure yeah let's do that i will share results well looks like it deleted then it looks like 1890 was definitely winning though okay cool yeah so we'll get around to answering that question just on the next slide here should we keep going or you want to try the other question now let's just keep going and i will ping you if i can get them to work sorry about that everyone pulling technical difficulties that's all right that's a new thing for all of us um so we will dive right into the history of grape growing in colorado oh no wait first we want to talk about a few of the times that we've been reported in the news so vogue magazine listed the grand valley of colorado which is over here in the grand junction area where i am located as one of the seven emerging wine regions to visit right now so that's super awesome in a fashion magazine such as vogue next up wine enthusiasts reported that colorado was on the rise and they talk about a few of the sunshine days and stuff that makes our growing region unique food wine magazine listed infinite monkey theorem which is located in denver as one of the 10 best urban wineries in the country and one of our largest claims to fame was that usa today raided the colorado mountain wine fest as the number one best wine festival in the nation and that was in 2017 so if you don't know about the wine fest i'll talk about that at the end of the presentation but that's one of the ways that you can get involved with colorado wine and then next up i wanted to have us tune into a quick less than a minute video about that was just newly created about colorado wine and how unique it is is colorado wine it's so much more than you think from our urban wineries located right in downtown denver and all along the front range to stunning landscapes vineyards spanning the western slope from palisade to peoria to cortez this is colorado wine cellars wineries tasting rooms this is colorado wine with over 165 wineries scattered throughout our state boasting varieties ranging from complex cabernets to crisp rieslings finding a label you love is easy no matter where your adventures happen to take you because this is colorado wine this is colorado wine this is colorado wine discover it for yourself at coloradowine.com so one of the things i wanted to highlight there was just how vastly different wine can be in our state whether you're in the heart of denver or over here in palisade grand junction area and then next up is a little history where we will find out when exactly the first wine was produced in colorado but this timeline starts in 1873 with just a mention of wild grapevines being seen on the side of the road by a writer and then they talk about how the canal wasn't installed in grand junction which is a huge reason why fruit production great production and out agriculture in general is even able to happen on the western slope of colorado and then we get into the 1880s and 1890s when it was actually george a crawford who founded the city of grand junction he was the first one to realize the potential of grief growing and he was the first one to produce wine so rachel said that 1890 was the most popular answer and you are correct and then moving on we just saw reports of grape harvests getting larger and larger by year and the number of vineyards planted throughout the state was growing however in 1916 prohibition was enacted in colorado so four years before the passage of the 18th amendment colorado went dry of course this was devastating for the wine industry and you can see this image there pouring a barrel of wine down the drain and what's interesting is during this time the peach industry if you're familiar with palisade peaches that's when the peach industry started booming because folks weren't able to plant grapes and make wine any longer so that's an interesting fact but we had a few dry years and then in the 1930s prohibition ended and we start to see the industry growing again um gerald ivanzi opened a vanci winery and he was one of the first winemakers and warren viniarski is also a really proud figure for colorado wine he went on to work at stag leap cellar in napa valley which ended up winning the judgment of paris which was a competition held by european i think specifically french grape growers and wine makers and it was warren viniarski's wine that beat all the european wines and that was what first put california and the us on the map in terms of wine making so if you're interested in learning more about that story line there's a movie called bottle shock that was created i highly recommend it as we continue on in the history of wine csu started the orchard mesa research center which is where i'm located in grand junction we also had the colorado limited winery act and the birth of cave which is the colorado association for viticulture and analogy which i'll talk about later and then we have a colorado wine board that was created as well as the west elks ava which i'll talk about in just a few slides and here was the report of from wine enthusiasts and then lastly on the same warren viniarski note he just donated 15 or 150 thousand dollars to western colorado community college right here in grand junction to pilot their wine and viticulture program so we are super excited and could be could not be happier to be supported by warren and his team so one of the next questions on the poll was going to be how many wineries do we think are in the state of colorado and surprisingly we have about a hundred and seventy this does include approximately twenty cideries and twelve meaderies which is honey wine because of their alcohol content they are considered wineries so here's a map of our state and the blocks of color signal where grapes are grown and i wanted to so here we have denver in the middle of the purple and then over here in the west we have what i've pointed to with that arrow is the grand valley ava so ava stands for american viticultural area and it is federally designated so all wine regions or when you there's a concentration of grapes grown in one region they can ask for an ava to be created so they can specify that on the bottle it gives the wine a sense more of a sense of place so in colorado we have two ava's one in the grand valley and then one in delta county and it's in the peonia hotchkiss region and that's called the west elks ninety percent of the grapes in the entire state are grown in mesa and delta counties so right around these two avas but what's interesting is that the places that grapes can be grown is expanding throughout our state you can now find grapes down near cortez and the durango area as well as this pikes peak arkansas valley area near canyon city and we do have some grips being grown on the front range as well so we're expanding not only in number but also in distribution across the state this is going to pull up a map of specific wineries and interactive maps so i think this is a great tool if you are hoping to maybe put together a wine trail or you want to go on a road trip and hit up a few wineries this is colorado wine.com and i'll include a link to this after the presentation today so you'll get an email with my presentation as well as all these links but here's a great way to put together a little wine road trip for example if you wanted to come to the grand valley in grand junction here's a list of all the wineries that you could visit and it links to their website and directions for how to get there so i thought this was a great tool and you can search in all the areas throughout the state so i wanted to make sure we all were aware of that now we have about 170 wineries throughout the state but what does that look like in terms of vineyard and so we have about 800 vineyards acres throughout the state the average size of a vineyard is just under three acres um it all in all we produce over 1600 tons of grapes each year and on average we're getting about 3.8 tons of grapes per for each acre and in terms of monetary value the average price you can get for grapes is about fifteen hundred dollars this does depend on the variety of course i'd love to talk about what makes us unique here in colorado grapes are grown anywhere between four and seven thousand feet in elevation this is the highest altitude that grapes are grown at in the northern hemisphere and almost in the world we are second only to argentina and china in addition to that we have at least over here on the west slope more than 300 days of sunshine this each year and this really helps hasten the ripening process for the grapes during the growing season and it also is why we're able to grow other fruit crops such as peaches we also have more alkaline soils and so they are not as acidic as for example other growing regions like napa valley or bordeaux france and so the same varieties that are grown in those regions that are also grown in colorado can taste completely different because of the characteristics of that more alkaline soil in addition we have an extremely dry climate being in a high desert location over here on the western slope and this causes for relatively low pest and disease pressure so as rachel mentioned i used to i went to school in oregon which is the complete opposite they get constant rain and a wet moist environment is really helpful for bacteria and viruses to take hold so because of our dry climate we don't deal with a ton of pests and diseases which is good from an extension agent's perspective and then next up is a really cool article that was produced by 5280 denver's mile high magazine and it just puts an image to some of these characteristics that i've been talking about that are so unique here in colorado so this is an image of the grand valley and if you've never been here we are surrounded by the book cliffs which is what you see here in brownish brownish orange and so they talk about how all the components that go into making colorado wine which is the elevation that i mentioned and they talk about the light hued south facing book cliffs acting as a heat sink absorbing and radiating the sun's warmth onto the valley floor below so that also helps the ripening process of our grapes they talk again about how the colorado river is essential to grape growing in colorado and the alkaline soils as well another thing i wanted to point out is what they call the million dollar breeze which is the airflow through the canyon that keeps the grapes warm even when the temperatures drop so it's a warm breeze coming through the canyon and right into palisade which is the small town right next to grand junction where the majority of grapes are grown and so i think this is just a really neat illustration of how we can grow grapes here in colorado and one of the other poll questions was going to be what is the nnual economic impact of colorado's wine industry and you can see here it is about 300 million dollars each year this table just shows how i've been mentioning how colorado the grape and wine industry has been growing immensely so this just puts an image to that and you can see how we started with just a few acres and we've grown to almost 800 acres this doesn't include all the data that's been put in since this last harvest but we usually have about 800 acres planted each year and you may be wondering what varieties are we known for here in colorado so this is a pie chart of sorts and i've put a star next to the top four most commonly planted varieties number one being cabernet sauvignon followed by merlot and then we have riesling and cabernet franc a lot of people would consider cabernet franc if we were to choose a flagship variety for colorado a lot of folks would consider cabernet franc just because it's able to be grown in such a wide variety of locations and so it would be a great representation of colorado wine but what i wanted to point out here is as you can see in the pie chart a large portion of the varieties that we grow fall into this other category which consists of hybrid varieties which we'll talk about in a little bit but we primarily grow them because they are more cold hardy and so there's a lot more of an interest in cold hardy varieties moving forward and we are encouraging them because of our climate so here you can see a picture of myself i'm the viticulture extension specialist just wanted to remind you viticulture means the science of growing grapes and i work on the extension side or the outreach portion of working with the industry and i like to describe and tell a little story about what extension is because i wasn't familiar with it when i was growing up and didn't know it would be an option for a future career and so the way i like to describe it is every land-grant institution in the state in the country was granted a plot of land from the country and they were to create a land-grant institution so build an institution and the main priority was to be research and education and agriculture was a huge part of was it very important back then just as it is now and so a few years after the land-grant institutions were implemented they surveyed farmers in the area and said are you getting information and everything you need from these universities and they said no we haven't heard a single thing and so they realize that there is a missing link which was extension and the main goal of extension is to take the research that's being done at the university and work specifically with growers in their own property and help them to implement it on their own land on their own farm and so that's how the idea of extension was born so i do a lot of communication and outreach and i'll talk specifically more about that shortly but i also wanted to highlight dr horst kasperi who is the viticulture professor and researcher and so he is also located here in grand junction and he has been here for 20 years and he does various trials to figure out how we can make viticulture work here in our unique climate so we are both located at what used to be known as the orchard mesa research center but it's now known as csu western campus so here are some images of the vineyards that we have and here's dr horstkasperi as well so i'll talk a little bit more specifics about my position and then his so my main goal is to increase the resources and educational opportunities for wine grape growers across the state with the end goal of improving the quality of colorado wine grapes so i was hired in june of 2019 i was the first person to ever have this position it was a really great opportunity and on a day-to-day basis i find myself hosting seminars and workshops in the light of kovid this looks more like webinars i also produce fact sheets and create videos and other educational materials to put out to growers i also get a tons of calls and emails about sending a picture of a pest or a diseased leaf and trying to figure out troubleshoot what could be the problem there and i often go visit vineyards to have a more hands-on approach but the main goal here as i mentioned with extension is to relay the research information that horsed the results as he's getting from all of his studies so here are some examples of events that we've done in the past we did a viticulture road show and our main goal was just to travel to all the great growing regions across the state we've also done a pruning webinar and a talk about grapevine cold injury which has been a problem in recent years here's some examples of a few fact sheets that i've put together a lot of them revolve around pests and insects we can see we have the grape leaf hopper as well as the spotted lanternfly and so back to the work that horst does because it is so vital to our industry growing and expanding he is does a ton of variety and rootstock trials so just trying to figure out which varieties can grow in our unique climate it's tricky because we can't rely on a ton of other universities or growing regions for their results because of all those reasons why i listed our climate is so unique and he also looks into which rootstocks might work best and we'll talk about why rootstocks are important in a few slides here not only are we worried about which varieties to grow but how can we manage these grapevines in the best way so we he conducts trials on cover crops so what to plant in between the vineyard that doesn't compete with the vines but can also provide nutrients for them what irrigation practices are best and then some other techniques for dealing with phylloxera which is an insect that i'll talk about here shortly and lastly a huge part of what he does is conduct cold hardiness trials you'll see here shortly that cold hardiness is one of the biggest issues that we deal with basically we're right on the brink of being warm enough to be able to grow grapes and so we constantly want to monitor how well the vines are responding to the weather and whether they'll be able to deal with some of the temperature snaps that we've been seeing recently so horst conducts research right here in grand junction where our office is located we also have a research vineyard down in hotchkiss that's the organic research station at orchard mesa and there's also a vineyard located in fort collins where we do a lot of the cold hardy trials because obviously it's colder up there and like i said we do have some limitations to growing grapes here in colorado the first of which is cold hardiness and so in order to deal with the cold weather we have here in colorado it comes down to selecting the proper site to grow a vineyard selecting the proper variety to plant and then there are some techniques that can be used as well i also want to talk about phylloxera which is an microscopic insect that feeds on grapevine roots and it was introduced here in colorado recently and it can decimate vineyards so we are looking with the best ways to deal with that insect as well in terms of cold hardiness this is a graph that is showing maximum and minimum temperatures throughout the course of 2019 and i wanted to highlight the october and november section of last year where you see two record low temperatures october is the right usually right in the middle of grape harvest season and we had the temperature drop to about 19 degrees which is vines are not able to grow during that temperature so it put a halt to the growing season and folks were scrambling to harvest what was left on their vines and then again this past spring in april we had a freeze you may have heard it decimated the majority of the peach crop this year um grapes were also affected and then just a few weeks ago again in october right at the end of harvest we had another cold event that brought an end to the growing season so these temperature swings are really affecting the great growing regions because what grapevines do is they can be extremely hardy in the middle of the winter but there is an acclimation period that occurs and what happens is they acclimate in response to cold temperatures outside but a lot of the cold events we're seeing are extreme drops so the vines don't have time to get ready for them and be able to withstand them because they're not acclimated so we're really worried about these shoulder seasons in the spring and the fall and that's one of the huge limitations that we have to growing grapes here in colorado i wanted to highlight some really interesting work that dr horst kaspari did and he went through and plotted the entire state of colorado and found the places where grapes can potentially be grown and so you'll see on this scale on the right what's shown in yellow these these areas have the lowest chance of getting the vines killed and what you see here in blue they have basically 10 out of 10 estimated killing years per decade so 10 out of 10 times vines would be killed in these locations so this map looks similar to what i showed in the beginning of the areas where grapes are grown throughout our state and this graph in particular is with european grape varieties so european grape varieties are what people are commonly familiar with such as cabernet sauvignon merlot chardonnay but i want to switch gears because i did mention cold hardy varieties and you can see i'm going to toggle back and forth this is the same graph but with cold hardy varieties so you can see a little more yellow there are more places that cold hardy varieties are able to grow in our state so here's european varieties and here's those cold hardy ones so we're really encouraging people consider these varieties they are less well known some examples include chamberson marquette la crescent aramella so they're not as recognizable to a consumer but they do work great in a blend for example so when we talk about a few other ways to deal with the cold temperatures that we have we want to really harp on how important it is to choose the proper site for your vineyard this image shows how cold air drains on a slope and cold air drains and pools at the very bottom so you wouldn't want to plant a vineyard at the bottom of a slope because you can expect colder temperatures there so we recommend planting a vineyard about midway in the slope because to avoid that cold air in the bottom twenty to thirty percent and then cultivar selection like i mentioned bittisfinifera is our european varieties and they can in the middle of winter withstand temperatures to about negative five degrees fahrenheit on the contrary those hybrid varieties cold hardy varieties i mentioned can withstand down to negative 30 degrees fahrenheit and so these are the cold hardy varieties that we are recommending for new growers or people that are replanting their vineyards and lastly on the topic of cold hardiness there's a few techniques you can use during the growing season and throughout the year to protect the vines and now on to the interesting topic of phylloxera like i said it's a microscopic insect can be related to an aphid and it feeds on the grapevine roots and what's really interesting is the way that it is detected so on the right you can see an aerial view of a vineyard and i'm going to highlight a few areas where it looks like the vines aren't as healthy they look weaker and you can see some spots of weak growth and the way you can tell if you have phylloxera is by the pattern in which they spread and so feeding on their roots they're sucking the nutrients away from the vine and so if you were to come back to this vineyard next year you might expect these low lying spots or these spots that look unhealthy to grow just like you can see with that blue circle there and the year after that you might expect that area of weak growth to grow even further so phylloxera was detected in our state in 2015. as of 2019 there were 24 cases worldwide and what they do this pattern just continues and they can take over the whole vineyard it's not immediate it can take anywhere between between five to ten years but the way of dealing with phylloxera is by altering the root stock and so the rootstock is the root part of the vine only vitispinifera or european rootstock is susceptible so regardless of the variety of grape you actually want you can splice it onto roots of a different species and so we recommend that growers use a rootstock that is tolerant to phylloxera and then they won't have to worry about flux or feeding on the roots so that sounds like a pretty easy fix but it will require completely replanting any of those vineyards that are planted on european roots and here's just an example if you are visiting vineyards and you see this sign flexor can spread really easily on boots of workers or consumers and so we recommend not to walk into a vineyard without asking because it could be a european variety that is susceptible and we don't want to spread this insect any more than it already is being spread i just have a few slides left here i wanted to highlight a few of the amazing vineyards we have in our state first up is a relatively new vineyard it's called savage spectrum and it is run by kaibab over here in palisade and one of the ways that he is really pioneering in the industry is with the varieties that he chooses to make wine out of and the types of wine that he makes so kaibab uses almost exclusively cold hardy varieties and what he does with them is make sparkling wine and sparkling wine is a great option for grapes grown in our state because when you harvest grapes for sparkling wine you purposely harvest them earlier and so for example with the freeze we had this october the sparkling wine grapes would have already been harvested because you want to preserve the acidity in the wine and so i think sparkling wine is a great option for growers in our state and the wine tastes amazing so i would highly recommend savage spectrum for a innovative take on colorado wine next up we have carlson vineyards which is located in palisade as well they are the third oldest winery in our state and they are known for their fruit wines if you're interested in trying peach wine plum wine or cherry wine this is the place to go they also have another number of other sweet and dry red and white varieties as well and lastly i wanted to highlight the storm cellar which is located in the west elks ava in hotchkiss colorado this is a relatively new winery as well it was started by steve and jamie who were two sommeliers from denver who left the restaurant industry and bought a vineyard vineyard without any grape growing or wine making experience and they're making some really killer wine out of it so they have a great story to tell and i would highly recommend them if you're in the delta county region lastly i wanted to talk about a few of the partners that we have i work really closely with the colorado wine board and they are a sector of the colorado department of ag and then i also work with the colorado association for viticulture and enology who is our train association located here in palisade and you may know of the colorado wine board because of the governor's cup competition which usually brings in judges from around the country and they select one case to be the best colorado wine for each year unfortunately we were able to hold the competition this year due to cobit but here are the winners from last year additionally they hold a public event which allows you to taste these award-winning wines paired with amazing bites of food prepared by chefs from colorado as well and so this is just a way you can get involved with the industry this event is called colorado uncorked and i would encourage you to keep an eye out for when it might be hosted next spring and on the cave side of things you may very well be familiar with the colorado mountain wine fest which is usually held in september this is a great way to learn more about colorado wine and taste more colorado wine and cave also puts on vinco which is a conference held every january and it is the premier conference in the state for viticulture analogy which is wine making and business and marketing so this is a huge educational opportunity for our whole industry and th other ways you can get involved are by visiting our website which is viticulture.callostate.edu we also have a colorado grid growers facebook page which you are welcome to join and lastly i put out a viticulture extension newsletter usually on a weekly basis just with upcoming events research updates and things of that sort so i encourage you to if after this presentation you're interested in receiving those newsletters feel free to email me i'll leave all my contact information with rachel and with that i wanted to say thank you so much here's my contact information and i just wanted to leave us with a few quick slides that were created by the colorado blind board during these copic times i just think they're really great examples of how you can still support our industry even during these crazy times so here's just a few cool slides here but i would love to answer any questions you might have oh they're so cute miranda thank you so much this was super interesting i had a question about how long the growing season sure so bud break is what we consider the start of the season when you first see the green tissue coming off of the vines and that usually occurs in april and the season usually extends until september or october awesome thank you i also was curious if um with all the research you all do on grapes do you then sell or share those grapes to local wineries to make wine out of yes a lot of the grapes do go up for sale and end up getting purchased by local wineries um a lot of them we also make wine out of at the research center in case we were trying to test the effect of one management practice versus another and see if it affected the wine so a lot of it is used for research purposes as well awesome thank you shannon is wondering how long does it take before newly planted vines can begin producing usable grapes it takes longer than one might imagine we usually say it takes about four years until you are receiving the typical yield or until it's at maximum production you may start to see a few clusters of grapes at year three but on average we say year four wow i did not know it was that long either well some other fruit crops are even longer like peaches and apricots are usually about seven years quite the investment you have to have a lot of patience to grow those fruits don't you harry is wondering what zones can cold hardy grapes be grown in i'd have to look up the exact zones off the top of my head but i think they're in zones five six and seven um so in the denver front range region we pretty much only have those cold hardy grapes because the european varieties wouldn't be able to withstand the cold but those cold hardy varieties can also grow out here on the western slope as well awesome do you have a favorite type of wine that's probably the worst question that you get ever because of the time i spent in oregon i'm i really enjoy pinot noir just because it's not a super overpowering red wine but it really complements almost any type of food so i might be partial to piano noir we don't really grow it here in colorado there are a few vineyards in delta county that have been able to grow some really killer pinot noir um but generally speaking it's a little too cold here for us to grow pinot noir fair enough i do love a good pinot noir myself as well if anyone has any other questions please feel free to put them in the chat or the q a we've got just a couple minutes that we can absolutely answer any more questions if you have them from miranda and of course we'll be sending out all her amazing resources i'm definitely excited to peruse those websites myself and get a little more uh in depth on some of the things she showed us so many awesome resources today so we'll send her slide deck and those links and the recording you'll just get so much information you won't even know what to do with it all we'll give everyone just another minute or two if there's any other questions it's definitely made me ready to have my five o'clock glass of wine so we will definitely have to hopefully everyone can cheers later today russ is wondering has anyone tried growing out by the nebraska border not that i know of off the top of my head i know that there are some grape growers in kansas and there was also a brand new viticulture and analogy program at a community college in kansas so i would imagine that i'm pretty sure grapes are grown in almost every single state in the u.s it's just a matter of choosing those varieties for example minnesota has a breeding program specifically for extremely cold hearty varieties so some of those ones i mentioned are from come from the university of minnesota so i have no doubt that there are grapes being grown in nebraska i'm not aware of any more details other than that fair enough donna has shared she knows their grapes grown in the northeastern part of nebraska so awesome definitely a google search for anyone wondering that information well thank you miranda so much for your time today this was super interesting i loved learning more about the colorado grape and wine industry myself and everyone thank you so much for joining us during your lunch hour today we hope you enjoyed this fantastic presentation miranda truly thank you so much for your time i hope everyone continues to stay well stay stalwart and go rams thank you every time i care thank you
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How to electronically sign and fill out a document online
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